Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The association of striatal volume and positive schizotypy in healthy subjects: intelligence as a moderating factor

  • Tina Meller (a1) (a2), Ulrich Ettinger (a3), Phillip Grant (a4) (a5) and Igor Nenadić (a1) (a2) (a6)

Abstract

Background

Schizotypy, a putative schizophrenia endophenotype, has been associated with brain-structural variations partly overlapping with those in psychotic disorders. Variations in precuneus structure have been repeatedly reported, whereas the involvement of fronto-striatal networks – as in schizophrenia – is less clear. While shared genetic architecture is thought to increase vulnerability to environmental insults, beneficial factors like general intelligence might buffer their effect.

Methods

To further investigate the role of fronto-striatal networks in schizotypy, we examined the relationship of voxel- and surface-based brain morphometry and a measure of schizotypal traits (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, with subscores Cognitive-Perceptual, Interpersonal, Disorganised) in 115 healthy participants [54 female, mean age (s.d.) = 27.57(8.02)]. We tested intelligence (MWT-B) as a potential moderator.

Results

We found a positive association of SPQ Cognitive-Perceptual with putamen volume (p = 0.040, FWE peak level-corrected), moderated by intelligence: with increasing IQ, the correlation of SPQ Cognitive-Perceptual and striatal volume decreased (p = 0.022). SPQ Disorganised was positively correlated with precentral volume (p = 0.013, FWE peak level-corrected). In an exploratory analysis (p < 0.001, uncorrected), SPQ total score was positively associated with gyrification in the precuneus and postcentral gyrus, and SPQ Disorganised was negatively associated with gyrification in the inferior frontal gyrus.

Conclusions

Our findings support the role of fronto-striatal networks for schizotypal features in healthy individuals, and suggest that these are influenced by buffering factors like intelligence. We conclude that protective factors, like general cognitive capacity, might attenuate the psychosis risk associated with schizotypy. These results endorse the idea of a continuous nature of schizotypy, mirroring similar findings in schizophrenia.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Tina Meller, E-mail: tina.meller@uni-marburg.de and Ulrich Ettinger, E-mail: ulrich.ettinger@uni-bonn.de

References

Hide All
Aichert, DS, Williams, SCR, Möller, H-J, Kumari, V and Ettinger, U (2012) Functional neural correlates of psychometric schizotypy: an fMRI study of antisaccades. Psychophysiology 49, 345356.
Ashburner, J and Friston, KJ (2011) Diffeomorphic registration using geodesic shooting and Gauss-Newton optimisation. NeuroImage 55, 954967.
Axelrod, SR, Grilo, CM, Sanislow, C and McGlashan, TH (2001) Schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief: factor structure and convergent validity in inpatient adolescents. Journal of Personality Disorders 15, 168179.
Bakhshi, K and Chance, SA (2015) The neuropathology of schizophrenia: a selective review of past studies and emerging themes in brain structure and cytoarchitecture. Neuroscience 303, 82102.
Barrantes-Vidal, N, Grant, P and Kwapil, TR (2015) The role of schizotypy in the study of the etiology of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41(suppl 2), Oxford: Oxford University Press, S408S416.
Barron, D, Voracek, M, Tran, US, Ong, HS, Morgan, KD, Towell, T and Swami, V (2018) A reassessment of the higher-order factor structure of the German schizotypal personality questionnaire (SPQ-G) in German-speaking adults. Psychiatry Research 269, 328336.
Brod, JH (1997) Creativity and schizotypy. In Claridge, G (ed), Schizotypy – Implications for Illness and Health. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 274298.
Brosey, E and Woodward, ND (2015) Schizotypy and clinical symptoms, cognitive function, and quality of life in individuals with a psychotic disorder. Schizophrenia Research 166, 9297.
Brugger, SP and Howes, OD (2017) Heterogeneity and homogeneity of regional brain structure in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 11041111.
Caseras, X, Tansey, KE, Foley, S and Linden, D (2015) Association between genetic risk scoring for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with regional subcortical volumes. Translational Psychiatry 5, e692e692.
Chang, M, Womer, FY, Bai, C, Zhou, Q, Wei, S, Jiang, X, Geng, H, Zhou, Y, Tang, Y and Wang, F (2016) Voxel-based morphometry in individuals at genetic high risk for schizophrenia and patients with schizophrenia during their first episode of psychosis. PLoS ONE 11, e0163749.
Chemerinski, E, Byne, W, Kolaitis, JC, Glanton, CF, Canfield, EL, Newmark, RE, Haznedar, MM, Novakovic, V, Chu, K-W, Siever, LJ and Hazlett, EA (2013) Larger putamen size in antipsychotic-naïve individuals with schizotypal personality disorder. Schizophrenia Research 143, 158164.
Chen, KC, Lee, IH, Yeh, TL, Chiu, NT, Chen, PS, Yang, YK, Lu, R-B and Chen, CC (2012) Schizotypy trait and striatal dopamine receptors in healthy volunteers. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 201, 218221.
Chi, JG, Dooling, EC and Gilles, FH (1977) Gyral development of the human brain. Annals of Neurology 1, 8693.
Claridge, G (1997) Theoretical background and issues. In Claridge, G (ed), Schizotypy – Implications for Illness and Health. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, pp. 318.
Colom, R, Burgaleta, M, Román, FJ, Karama, S, Álvarez-Linera, J, Abad, FJ, Martínez, K, Quiroga, and Haier, RJ (2013) Neuroanatomic overlap between intelligence and cognitive factors: morphometry methods provide support for the key role of the frontal lobes. NeuroImage 72, 143152.
Compton, MT, Goulding, SM, Bakeman, R and McClure-Tone, EB (2009) An examination of the factorial structure of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B) among undergraduate students. Schizophrenia Research 115, 286289.
Cuesta, MJ, García de Jalón, E, Campos, MS, Moreno-Izco, L, Lorente-Omeñaca, R, Sánchez-Torres, AM and Peralta, V (2018) Motor abnormalities in first-episode psychosis patients and long-term psychosocial functioning. Schizophrenia Research 200, 97103.
Dahnke, R, Yotter, RA and Gaser, C (2013) Cortical thickness and central surface estimation. NeuroImage 65, 336348.
Dandash, O, Pantelis, C and Fornito, A (2017) Dopamine, fronto-striato-thalamic circuits and risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 180, 4857.
Debbané, M and Mohr, C (2015) Integration and development in schizotypy research: an introduction to the special supplement. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41(suppl. 2), S363S365.
DeRosse, P, Nitzburg, GC, Ikuta, T, Peters, BD, Malhotra, AK and Szeszko, PR (2015) Evidence from structural and diffusion tensor imaging for frontotemporal deficits in psychometric schizotypy. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, 104114.
Di Martino, A, Scheres, A, Margulies, DS, Kelly, AMC, Uddin, LQ, Shehzad, Z, Biswal, B, Walters, JR, Castellanos, FX and Milham, MP (2008) Functional connectivity of human Striatum: a resting state fMRI study. Cerebral Cortex 18, 27352747.
Ettinger, U, Joober, R, DE Guzman, R and O'Driscoll, GA (2006) Schizotypy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and dopamine genes. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 60, 764767.
Ettinger, U, Williams, SCR, Meisenzahl, EM, Möller, H-J, Kumari, V and Koutsouleris, N (2012) Association between brain structure and psychometric schizotypy in healthy individuals. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 13, 544549.
Ettinger, U, Corr, PJ, Mofidi, A, Williams, SCR and Kumari, V (2013) Dopaminergic basis of the psychosis-prone personality investigated with functional magnetic resonance imaging of procedural learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7, 130.
Ettinger, U, Meyhöfer, I, Steffens, M, Wagner, M and Koutsouleris, N (2014) Genetics, cognition, and neurobiology of schizotypal personality: a review of the overlap with schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychiatry 5, 18.
Ettinger, U, Mohr, C, Gooding, DC, Cohen, AS, Rapp, A, Haenschel, C and Park, S (2015) Cognition and brain function in schizotypy: a selective review. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, S417S426.
Eysenck, HJ (1952) The Scientific Study of Personality. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.: London.
Falkenberg, I, Chaddock, C, Murray, RM, McDonald, C, Modinos, G, Bramon, E, Walshe, M, Broome, M, McGuire, P and Allen, P (2015) Failure to deactivate medial prefrontal cortex in people at high risk for psychosis. European Psychiatry 30, 633640.
Flückiger, R, Ruhrmann, S, Debbané, M, Michel, C, Hubl, D, Schimmelmann, BG, Klosterkötter, J and Schultze-Lutter, F (2016) Psychosis-predictive value of self-reported schizotypy in a clinical high-risk sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 125, 923932.
Flückiger, R, Michel, C, Grant, P, Ruhrmann, S, Vogeley, K, Hubl, D, Schimmelmann, BG, Klosterkötter, J, Schmidt, SJ and Schultze-Lutter, F (2019) The interrelationship between schizotypy, clinical high risk for psychosis and related symptoms: cognitive disturbances matter. Schizophrenia Research 210, 188196
Fonseca-Pedrero, E, Ortuño-Sierra, J, Lucas-Molina, B, Debbané, M, Chan, RCK, Cicero, DC, Zhang, LC, Brenner, C, Barkus, E, Linscott, RJ, Kwapil, T, Barrantes-Vidal, N, Cohen, A, Raine, A, Compton, MT, Tone, EB, Suhr, J, Bobes, J, Fumero, A, Giakoumaki, S, Tsaousis, I, Preti, A, Chmielewski, M, Laloyaux, J, Mechri, A, Lahmar, MA, Wuthrich, V, Larøi, F, Badcock, JC, Jablensky, A, Barron, D, Swami, V, Tran, US and Voracek, M (2018) Brief assessment of schizotypal traits: a multinational study. Schizophrenia Research 197, 182191.
Grace, AA, Floresco, SB, Goto, Y and Lodge, DJ (2007) Regulation of firing of dopaminergic neurons and control of goal-directed behaviors. Trends in Neurosciences 30, 220227.
Grant, P (2015) Is schizotypy per se a suitable endophenotype of schizophrenia? – Do not forget to distinguish positive from negative facets. Frontiers in Psychiatry 6, 143.
Grant, P, Balser, M, Munk, AJL, Linder, J and Hennig, J (2014a) A false-positive detection bias as a function of state and trait schizotypy in interaction with intelligence. Frontiers in Psychiatry 5, 135.
Grant, P, Kuepper, Y, Mueller, EA, Wielpuetz, C, Mason, O and Hennig, J (2013) Dopaminergic foundations of schizotypy as measured by the German version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE) – a suitable endophenotype of schizophrenia. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7, 1.
Grant, P, Gabriel, F, Kuepper, Y, Wielpuetz, C and Hennig, J (2014b) Psychosis-proneness correlates with expression levels of dopaminergic genes. European Psychiatry 29, 304306.
Grant, P, Judith Leila Munk, A, Kuepper, Y, Wielpuetz, C and Hennig, J (2015) Additive genetic effects for schizotypy support a fully-dimensional model of psychosis-proneness. Journal of Individual Differences 36, 8792.
Grant, P, Green, MJ and Mason, OJ (2018) Models of schizotypy: the importance of conceptual clarity. Schizophrenia Bulletin 44(suppl_2), S556S563.
Gross, GM, Mellin, J, Silvia, PJ, Barrantes-Vidal, N and Kwapil, TR (2014) Comparing the factor structure of the Wisconsin schizotypy scales and the schizotypal personality questionnaire. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 5, 397405.
Gurvich, C, Bozaoglu, K, Neill, E, Van Rheenen, TE, Tan, EJ, Louise, S and Rossell, SL (2016) The dopamine D1 receptor gene is associated with negative schizotypy in a non-clinical sample. Psychiatry Research 235, 213214.
Hatzimanolis, A, Avramopoulos, D, Arking, DE, Moes, A, Bhatnagar, P, Lencz, T, Malhotra, AK, Giakoumaki, SG, Roussos, P, Smyrnis, N, Bitsios, P and Stefanis, NC (2018) Stress-dependent association between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and schizotypal traits in young army recruits. Schizophrenia Bulletin 44, 338347.
Hayes, A (2013) Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, 2nd edn. New York, US: The Guilford Press.
Hirjak, D, Kubera, KM, Thomann, PA and Wolf, RC (2018) Motor dysfunction as an intermediate phenotype across schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: progress and perspectives. Schizophrenia Research 200, 2634.
Honea, R, Crow, TJ, Passingham, D and Mackay, CE (2005) Regional deficits in brain volume in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. American Journal of Psychiatry 162, 22332245.
Hong, SB, Lee, TY, Kwak, YB, Kim, SN and Kwon, JS (2015) Baseline putamen volume as a predictor of positive symptom reduction in patients at clinical high risk for psychosis: a preliminary study. Schizophrenia Research 169, 178185.
Howes, OD and Kapur, S (2009) The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: version III – the final common pathway. Schizophrenia Bulletin 35, 549562.
Howes, OD, McCutcheon, R, Owen, MJ and Murray, RM (2017) The role of genes, stress, and dopamine in the development of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry 81, 920.
Hubl, D, Schultze-Lutter, F, Hauf, M, Dierks, T, Federspiel, A, Kaess, M, Michel, C, Schimmelmann, BG and Kindler, J (2018) Striatal cerebral blood flow, executive functioning, and fronto-striatal functional connectivity in clinical high risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 201, 231236.
Janssens, M, Boyette, L-L, Heering, HD, Bartels-Velthuis, AA, Lataster, T, Kahn, RS, de Haan, L, van Os, J, Wiersma, D, Bruggeman, R, Cahn, W, Meijer, C and Myin-Germeys, I (2016) Developmental course of subclinical positive and negative psychotic symptoms and their associations with genetic risk status and impairment. Schizophrenia Research 174, 177182.
Klein, C, Andresen, B and Jahn, T (1997) Erfassung der schizotypen persönlichkeit nach DSM-II-R: psychometrische eigenschaften einer autorisierten deutschsprachigen Übersetzung des ‘Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire’ (SPQ) von Raine. Diagnostica 43, 347369.
Klein, C, Andresen, B and Jahn, T (2001) Konstruktvalidierung der deutschsprachigen adaptation des Schizotypal Personality Questionnaires (SPQ) von Raine (1991). In Andresen, B and Maß, R (eds), Schizotypie. Psychometrische Entwicklungen und Biopsychologische Forschungsansätze. Göttingen: Hogrefe, pp. 349378.
Kline, E, Wilson, C, Ereshefsky, S, Nugent, KL, Pitts, S, Reeves, G and Schiffman, J (2012) Schizotypy, psychotic-like experiences and distress: an interaction model. Psychiatry Research 200, 647651.
Knöchel, C, Stäblein, M, Prvulovic, D, Ghinea, D, Wenzler, S, Pantel, J, Alves, G, Linden, DEJ, Harrison, O, Carvalho, A, Reif, A and Oertel-Knöchel, V (2016) Shared and distinct gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenia, schizophrenia relatives and bipolar disorder in association with cognitive impairment. Schizophrenia Research 171, 140148.
Koo, M-S, Dickey, CC, Park, H-J, Kubicki, M, Ji, NY, Bouix, S, Pohl, KM, Levitt, JJ, Nakamura, M, Shenton, ME and McCarley, RW (2006) Smaller neocortical gray matter and larger sulcal cerebrospinal fluid volumes in neuroleptic-naive women With schizotypal personality disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry 63, 1090.
Kotov, R, Krueger, RF, Watson, D, Achenbach, TM, Althoff, RR, Bagby, RM, Brown, TA, Carpenter, WT, Caspi, A, Clark, LA, Eaton, NR, Forbes, MK, Forbush, KT, Goldberg, D, Hasin, D, Hyman, SE, Ivanova, MY, Lynam, DR, Markon, K, Miller, JD, Moffitt, TE, Morey, LC, Mullins-Sweatt, SN, Ormel, J, Patrick, CJ, Regier, DA, Rescorla, L, Ruggero, CJ, Samuel, DB, Sellbom, M, Simms, LJ, Skodol, AE, Slade, T, South, SC, Tackett, JL, Waldman, ID, Waszczuk, MA, Widiger, TA, Wright, AGC and Zimmerman, M (2017) The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): a dimensional alternative to traditional nosologies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 126, 454477.
Koutsouleris, N, Gaser, C, Jäger, M, Bottlender, R, Frodl, T, Holzinger, S, Schmitt, GJE, Zetzsche, T, Burgermeister, B, Scheuerecker, J, Born, C, Reiser, M, Möller, H-J and Meisenzahl, EM (2008) Structural correlates of psychopathological symptom dimensions in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 39, 16001612.
Kühn, S, Schubert, F and Gallinat, J (2012) Higher prefrontal cortical thickness in high schizotypal personality trait. Journal of Psychiatric Research 46, 960965.
Kwapil, TR and Barrantes-Vidal, N (2015) Schizotypy: looking back and moving forward. Schizophrenia Bulletin 41, S366S373.
Kwapil, TR, Gross, GM, Silvia, PJ and Barrantes-Vidal, N (2013) Prediction of psychopathology and functional impairment by positive and negative schizotypy in the Chapmans’ ten-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 122, 807815.
Leeson, VC, Barnes, TRE, Hutton, SB, Ron, MA and Joyce, EM (2009) IQ as a predictor of functional outcome in schizophrenia: a longitudinal, four-year study of first-episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 107, 5560.
Lehrl, S (1995) Mehrfachwahl-Wortschatz-Intelligenztest MWT-B. Hogrefe: Göttingen.
Luders, E, Thompson, PM, Narr, KL, Toga, AW, Jancke, L and Gaser, C (2006) A curvature-based approach to estimate local gyrification on the cortical surface. NeuroImage 29, 12241230.
Mamah, D, Harms, MP, Wang, L, Barch, D, Thompson, P, Kim, J, Miller, MI and Csernansky, JG (2008) Basal ganglia shape abnormalities in the unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients. Biological Psychiatry 64, 111120.
Meehl, PE (1962) Schizotaxia, schizotypy, schizophrenia. American Psychologist 17, 827838.
Meehl, PE (1990) Toward an integrated theory of schizotaxia, schizotypy, and schizophrenia. Journal of Personality Disorders 4, 199.
Metzler, S, Dvorsky, D, Wyss, C, Nordt, C, Walitza, S, Heekeren, K, Rössler, W and Theodoridou, A (2016) Neurocognition in help-seeking individuals at risk for psychosis: prediction of outcome after 24 months. Psychiatry Research 246, 188194.
Meyhöfer, I, Steffens, M, Kasparbauer, A, Grant, P, Weber, B and Ettinger, U (2015) Neural mechanisms of smooth pursuit eye movements in schizotypy. Human Brain Mapping 36, 340353.
Mittal, VA, Orr, JM, Turner, JA, Pelletier, AL, Dean, DJ, Lunsford-Avery, J and Gupta, T (2013) Striatal abnormalities and spontaneous dyskinesias in non-clinical psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 151, 141147.
Modinos, G, Mechelli, A, Ormel, J, Groenewold, NA, Aleman, A and McGuire, PK (2010) Schizotypy and brain structure: a voxel-based morphometry study. Psychological Medicine 40, 14231431.
Modinos, G, Egerton, A, McLaughlin, A, McMullen, K, Kumari, V, Lythgoe, DJ, Barker, GJ, Aleman, A and Williams, SCR (2018) Neuroanatomical changes in people with high schizotypy: relationship to glutamate levels. Psychological Medicine 48, 18801889.
Mohr, C and Ettinger, U (2014) An overview of the association between schizotypy and dopamine. Frontiers in Psychiatry 5, 184.
Nenadic, I, Sauer, H and Gaser, C (2010) Distinct pattern of brain structural deficits in subsyndromes of schizophrenia delineated by psychopathology. NeuroImage 49, 11531160.
Nenadic, I, Yotter, RA, Sauer, H and Gaser, C (2014) Cortical surface complexity in frontal and temporal areas varies across subgroups of schizophrenia. Human Brain Mapping 35, 16911699.
Nenadic, I, Dietzek, M, Schönfeld, N, Lorenz, C, Gussew, A, Reichenbach, JR, Sauer, H, Gaser, C and Smesny, S (2015a) Brain structure in people at ultra-high risk of psychosis, patients with first-episode schizophrenia, and healthy controls: a VBM study. Schizophrenia Research 161, 169176.
Nenadic, I, Lorenz, C, Langbein, K, Dietzek, M, Smesny, S, Schönfeld, N, Fañanás, L, Sauer, H and Gaser, C (2015b) Brain structural correlates of schizotypy and psychosis proneness in a non-clinical healthy volunteer sample. Schizophrenia Research 168, 3743.
Nenadic, I, Yotter, RA, Sauer, H and Gaser, C (2015c) Patterns of cortical thinning in different subgroups of schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 206, 479483.
Oezgen, M and Grant, P (2018) Odd and disorganized – comparing the factor structure of the three major schizotypy inventories. Psychiatry Research 267, 289295.
Okada, N, Fukunaga, M, Yamashita, F, Koshiyama, D, Yamamori, H, Ohi, K, Yasuda, Y, Fujimoto, M, Watanabe, Y, Yahata, N, Nemoto, K, Hibar, DP, van Erp, TGM, Fujino, H, Isobe, M, Isomura, S, Natsubori, T, Narita, H, Hashimoto, N, Miyata, J, Koike, S, Takahashi, T, Yamasue, H, Matsuo, K, Onitsuka, T, Iidaka, T, Kawasaki, Y, Yoshimura, R, Watanabe, Y, Suzuki, M, Turner, JA, Takeda, M, Thompson, PM, Ozaki, N, Kasai, K and Hashimoto, R (2016) Abnormal asymmetries in subcortical brain volume in schizophrenia. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 14601466.
Peralta, V and Cuesta, MJ (2001) Motor features in psychotic disorders. I. Factor structure and clinical correlates. Schizophrenia Research 47, 107116.
Peters, H, Riedl, V, Manoliu, A, Scherr, M, Schwerthöffer, D, Zimmer, C, Förstl, H, Bäuml, J, Sorg, C and Koch, K (2017) Changes in extra-striatal functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia in a psychotic episode. British Journal of Psychiatry 210, 7582.
Postuma, RB and Dagher, A (2006) Basal ganglia functional connectivity based on a meta-analysis of 126 positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging publications. Cerebral Cortex 16, 15081521.
Rado, S (1953) Dynamics and classification of disordered behavior. The American Journal of Psychiatry 110, 406416.
Raine, A (1991) The SPQ: a scale for the assessment of schizotypal personality based on DSM-III-R criteria. Schizophrenia Bulletin 17, 555564.
Roché, MW, Fowler, ML and Lenzenweger, MF (2015) Deeper into schizotypy and motor performance: investigating the nature of motor control in a non-psychiatric sample. Psychiatry Research 228, 2025.
Rössler, J, Unterassner, L, Wyss, T, Haker, H, Brugger, P, Rössler, W and Wotruba, D (2018) Schizotypal traits are linked to dopamine-induced striato-cortical decoupling: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 45, 680688.
RStudio: Integrated Development for R. (2016) RStudio, Inc.: Boston, MA 1.1.456.
Satzger, W, Fessmann, H and Engel, RR (2002) Liefern HAWIE-R, WST und MWT-B Vergleichbare IQ-Werte?. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie 23, 159170.
Siever, LJ and Davis, KL (2004) The pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorders: perspectives from the spectrum. American Journal of Psychiatry 161, 398413.
Simpson, EH, Kellendonk, C and Kandel, E (2010) A possible role for the Striatum in the pathogenesis of the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. Neuron 65, 585596.
Spalthoff, R, Gaser, C and Nenadić, I (2018) Altered gyrification in schizophrenia and its relation to other morphometric markers. Schizophrenia Research 202, 195202.
Spinks, R, Nopoulos, P, Ward, J, Fuller, R, Magnotta, VA and Andreasen, NC (2005) Globus pallidus volume is related to symptom severity in neuroleptic naive patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 73, 229233.
Stanfield, AC, Moorhead, TWJ, Harris, JM, Owens, DGC, Lawrie, SM and Johnstone, EC (2008) Increased right prefrontal cortical folding in adolescents at risk of schizophrenia for cognitive reasons. Biological Psychiatry 63, 8085.
Tarbox, SI and Pogue-Geile, MF (2011) A multivariate perspective on schizotypy and familial association with schizophrenia: a review. Clinical Psychology Review 31, 11691182.
Tarbox, SI, Almasy, L, Gur, RE, Nimgaonkar, VL and Pogue-Geile, MF (2012) The nature of schizotypy among multigenerational multiplex schizophrenia families. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121, 396406.
van Erp, TGM, Hibar, DP, Rasmussen, JM, Glahn, DC, Pearlson, GD, Andreassen, OA, Agartz, I, Westlye, LT, Haukvik, UK, Dale, AM, Melle, I, Hartberg, CB, Gruber, O, Kraemer, B, Zilles, D, Donohoe, G, Kelly, S, McDonald, C, Morris, DW, Cannon, DM, Corvin, A, Machielsen, MWJ, Koenders, L, de Haan, L, Veltman, DJ, Satterthwaite, TD, Wolf, DH, Gur, RC, Gur, RE, Potkin, SG, Mathalon, DH, Mueller, BA, Preda, A, Macciardi, F, Ehrlich, S, Walton, E, Hass, J, Calhoun, VD, Bockholt, HJ, Sponheim, SR, Shoemaker, JM, van Haren, NEM, Hulshoff Pol, HE, Pol, HEH, Ophoff, RA, Kahn, RS, Roiz-Santiañez, R, Crespo-Facorro, B, Wang, L, Alpert, KI, Jönsson, EG, Dimitrova, R, Bois, C, Whalley, HC, McIntosh, AM, Lawrie, SM, Hashimoto, R, Thompson, PM and Turner, JA (2016) Subcortical brain volume abnormalities in 2028 individuals with schizophrenia and 2540 healthy controls via the ENIGMA consortium. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 547553.
van Lutterveld, R, Diederen, KMJ, Otte, WM and Sommer, IE (2014) Network analysis of auditory hallucinations in nonpsychotic individuals. Human Brain Mapping 35, 14361445.
Venables, PH and Raine, A (2015) The stability of schizotypy across time and instruments. Psychiatry Research 228, 585590.
Vollema, MG and van den Bosch, RJ (1995) The multidimensionality of schizotypy. Schizophrenia Bulletin 21, 1931.
Walter, EE, Fernandez, F, Snelling, M and Barkus, E (2016) Genetic consideration of schizotypal traits: a review. Frontiers in Psychology 7, 1769.
Waltmann, M, O'Daly, O, Egerton, A, McMullen, K, Kumari, V, Barker, GJ, Williams, SCR and Modinos, G (2019) Multi-echo fMRI, resting-state connectivity, and high psychometric schizotypy. NeuroImage: Clinical 21, 101603.
Wang, Y, Ettinger, U, Meindl, T and Chan, RCK (2018) Association of schizotypy with striatocortical functional connectivity and its asymmetry in healthy adults. Human Brain Mapping 39, 288299.
White, TP, Wigton, R, Joyce, DW, Collier, T, Fornito, A and Shergill, SS (2016) Dysfunctional striatal systems in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 41, 12741285.
Wickham, H (2016) ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis. Springer Verlag: New York.
Woodberry, KA, Seidman, LJ, Giuliano, AJ, Verdi, MB, Cook, WL and McFarlane, WR (2010) Neuropsychological profiles in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: relationship to psychosis and intelligence. Schizophrenia Research 123, 188198.
Yan, C, Wang, Y, Su, L, Xu, T, Yin, D, Fan, M, Deng, C, Wang, Z, Lui, SSY, Cheung, EFC and Chan, RCK (2016) Differential mesolimbic and prefrontal alterations during reward anticipation and consummation in positive and negative schizotypy. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 254, 127136.
Ziermans, T, de Wit, S, Schothorst, P, Sprong, M, van Engeland, H, Kahn, R and Durston, S (2014) Neurocognitive and clinical predictors of long-term outcome in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis: a 6-year follow-up. PLoS ONE 9, e93994.
Zuliani, R, Delvecchio, G, Bonivento, C, Cattarinussi, G, Perlini, C, Bellani, M, Marinelli, V, Rossetti, MG, Lasalvia, A, McIntosh, A, Lawrie, SM, Balestrieri, M, Ruggeri, M, Brambilla, P and PICOS Veneto Group (2018) Increased gyrification in schizophrenia and non affective first episode of psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 193, 269275.

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Meller et al. supplementary material
Figures SF1-SF2

 PDF (321 KB)
321 KB

The association of striatal volume and positive schizotypy in healthy subjects: intelligence as a moderating factor

  • Tina Meller (a1) (a2), Ulrich Ettinger (a3), Phillip Grant (a4) (a5) and Igor Nenadić (a1) (a2) (a6)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed