Aas, M, Dieset, I, Hope, S, Hoseth, E, Morch, R, Reponen, E, Steen, NE, Laskemoen, JF, Ueland, T, Aukrust, P, Agartz, I, Andreassen, OA and Melle, I (2017) Childhood maltreatment severity is associated with elevated C-reactive protein and body mass index in adults with schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 65, 342–349.
Baumeister, D, Akhtar, R, Ciufolini, S, Pariante, CM and Mondelli, V (2016) Childhood trauma and adulthood inflammation: a meta-analysis of peripheral C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 642–649.
Benjamini, Y and Hochberg, Y (1995) Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological) 57, 289–300.
Bergink, V, Gibney, SM and Drexhage, HA (2014) Autoimmunity, inflammation, and psychosis: a search for peripheral markers. Biological Psychiatry 75, 324–331.
Berk, M, Malhi, GS, Cahill, C, Carman, AC, Hadzi-Pavlovic, D, Hawkins, MT, Tohen, M and Mitchell, PB (2007) The Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS): its development, validation and utility. Bipolar Disorders 9, 571–579.
Bernstein, DP, Stein, JA, Newcomb, MD, Walker, E, Pogge, D, Ahluvalia, T, Stokes, J, Handelsman, L, Medrano, M, Desmond, D and Zule, W (2003) Development and validation of a brief screening version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Child Abuse and Neglect 27, 169–190.
Beumer, W, Drexhage, RC, De Wit, H, Versnel, MA, Drexhage, HA and Cohen, D (2012) Increased level of serum cytokines, chemokines and adipokines in patients with schizophrenia is associated with disease and metabolic syndrome. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37, 1901–1911.
Cardno, AG, Rijsdijk, FV, Sham, PC, Murray, RM and McGuffin, P (2002) A twin study of genetic relationships between psychotic symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 539–545.
Castle, DJ, Jablensky, A, McGrath, JJ, Carr, V, Morgan, V, Waterreus, A, Valuri, G, Stain, H, McGuffin, P and Farmer, A (2006) The diagnostic interview for psychoses (DIP): development, reliability and applications. Psychological Medicine 36, 69–80.
Chan, MK, Cooper, JD, Heilmann-Heimbach, S, Frank, J, Witt, SH, Nöthen, MM, Steiner, J, Rietschel, M and Bahn, S (2017) Associations between SNPs and immune-related circulating proteins in schizophrenia. Scientific Reports 7, 12586.
Coelho, R, Viola, TW, Walss-Bass, C, Brietzke, E and Grassi-Oliveira, R (2014) Childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers: a systematic review. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 129, 180–192.
Cutajar, MC, Mullen, PE, Ogloff, JR, Thomas, SD, Wells, DL and Spataro, J (2010) Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in a cohort of sexually abused children. Archives of General Psychiatry 67, 1114–1119.
Dargel, AA, Godin, O, Kapczinski, F, Kupfer, DJ and Leboyer, M (2015) C-reactive protein alterations in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 76, 142–150.
Davis, J, Maes, M, Andreazza, A, McGrath, JJ, Tye, SJ and Berk, M (2015) Towards a classification of biomarkers of neuropsychiatric disease: from encompass to compass. Molecular Psychiatry 20, 152–153.
Dennison, U, McKernan, D, Cryan, J and Dinan, T (2012) Schizophrenia patients with a history of childhood trauma have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Psychological Medicine 42, 1865–1871.
Di Nicola, M, Cattaneo, A, Hepgul, N, Di Forti, M, Aitchison, KJ, Janiri, L, Murray, RM, Dazzan, P, Pariante, CM and Mondelli, V (2013) Serum and gene expression profile of cytokines in first-episode psychosis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 31, 90–95.
Dunn, AJ (2000) Cytokine activation of the HPA axis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 917, 608–617.
Fernandes, BS, Steiner, J, Bernstein, HG, Dodd, S, Pasco, JA, Dean, OM, Nardin, P, Goncalves, CA and Berk, M (2016 a) C-reactive protein is increased in schizophrenia but is not altered by antipsychotics: meta-analysis and implications. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 554–564.
Fernandes, BS, Steiner, J, Molendijk, ML, Dodd, S, Nardin, P, Goncalves, CA, Jacka, F, Kohler, CA, Karmakar, C, Carvalho, AF and Berk, M (2016 b) C-reactive protein concentrations across the mood spectrum in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet. Psychiatry 3, 1147–1156.
Fisher, HL, Craig, TK, Fearon, P, Morgan, K, Dazzan, P, Lappin, J, Hutchinson, G, Doody, GA, Jones, PB, McGuffin, P, Murray, RM, Leff, J and Morgan, C (2011) Reliability and comparability of psychosis patients’ retrospective reports of childhood abuse. Schizophrenia Bulletin 37, 546–553.
Girshkin, L, Matheson, SL, Shepherd, AM and Green, MJ (2014) Morning cortisol levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychoneuroendocrinology 49, 187–206.
Goldsmith, DR, Rapaport, MH and Miller, BJ (2016) A meta-analysis of blood cytokine network alterations in psychiatric patients: comparisons between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Molecular Psychiatry 21, 1696–1709.
Hepgul, N, Pariante, CM, Dipasquale, S, DiForti, M, Taylor, H, Marques, TR, Morgan, C, Dazzan, P, Murray, RM and Mondelli, V (2012) Childhood maltreatment is associated with increased body mass index and increased C-reactive protein levels in first-episode psychosis patients. Psychological Medicine 42, 1893–1901.
Kay, SR, Opler, LA and Lindenmayer, J-P (1989) The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation. The British Journal of Psychiatry 155, 59–65.
Kirkpatrick, B and Miller, BJ (2013) Inflammation and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin 39, 1174–1179.
Leucht, S, Wahlbeck, K, Hamann, J and Kissling, W (2003) New generation antipsychotics versus low-potency conventional antipsychotics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet 361, 1581–1589.
Liu, J, Chen, J, Ehrlich, S, Walton, E, White, T, Perrone-Bizzozero, N, Bustillo, J, Turner, JA and Calhoun, VD (2014) Methylation patterns in whole blood correlate with symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin 40, 769–776.
Loughland, C, Draganic, D, McCabe, K, Richards, J, Nasir, A, Allen, J, Catts, S, Jablensky, A, Henskens, F, Michie, P, Mowry, B, Pantelis, C, Schall, U, Scott, R, Tooney, P and Carr, V (2010) Australian schizophrenia Research Bank: a database of comprehensive clinical, endophenotypic and genetic data for aetiological studies of schizophrenia. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 44, 1029–1035.
Lovibond, SH and Lovibond, PF (1995) The DASS: Manual for the Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales, 2nd Edn. Sydney, NSW, Australia: Psychology Foundation of Australia.
Matheson, SL, Shepherd, AM, Pinchbeck, RM, Laurens, KR and Carr, VJ (2013) Childhood adversity in schizophrenia: a systematic meta-analysis. Psychological Medicine 43, 225–238.
McGrath, JJ, Saha, S, Lim, CCW, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Andrade, LH, Bromet, EJ, Bruffaerts, R, Caldas de Almeida, JM, Cardoso, G, de Girolamo, G, Fayyad, J, Florescu, S, Gureje, O, Haro, JM, Kawakami, N, Koenen, KC, Kovess-Masfety, V, Lee, S, Lepine, JP, McLaughlin, KA, Medina-Mora, ME, Navarro-Mateu, F, Ojagbemi, A, Posada-Villa, J, Sampson, N, Scott, KM, Tachimori, H, Ten Have, M, Kendler, KS, Kessler, RC and Collaborators, W. H. O. W. M. H. S. (2017) Trauma and psychotic experiences: transnational data from the World Mental Health Survey. The British Journal of Psychiatry 211, 373–380.
McGuffin, P and Farmer, A (1991) A polydiagnostic application of operational criteria in studies of psychotic illness: development and validation of the OPCRIT system. Archives of General Psychiatry 48, 764–770.
Miller, BJ, Buckley, P, Seabolt, W, Mellor, A and Kirkpatrick, B (2011) Meta-analysis of cytokine alterations in schizophrenia: clinical status and antipsychotic effects. Biological Psychiatry 70, 663–671.
Miller, BJ, Culpepper, N and Rapaport, MH (2014) C-reactive protein levels in schizophrenia: a review and meta-analysis. Clinical Schizophrenia and Related Psychoses 7, 223–230.
Mitchell, PB, Johnston, AK, Corry, J, Ball, JR and Malhi, GS (2009) Characteristics of bipolar disorder in an Australian specialist outpatient clinic: comparison across large datasets. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 43, 1009–1017.
Modabbernia, A, Taslimi, S, Brietzke, E and Ashrafi, M (2013) Cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of 30 studies. Biological Psychiatry 74, 15–25.
Montgomery, P and Asberg, B (1979) A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. The British Journal of Psychiatry 134, 382–389.
Moraes, JB, Maes, M, Barbosa, DS, Ferrari, TZ, Uehara, MKS, Carvalho, AF and Nunes, SOV (2017) Elevated C-reactive protein levels in women with bipolar disorder may be explained by a history of childhood trauma, especially sexual abuse, body mass Index and Age. CNS Neurological Disorders – Drug Targets 16, 514–521.
Morris, G and Berk, M (2015) The many roads to mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroimmune and neuropsychiatric disorders. BMC Medicine 13, 68.
Munkholm, K, Brauner, JV, Kessing, LV and Vinberg, M (2013) Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychiatric Research 47, 1119–1133.
Potvin, S, Stip, E, Sepehry, AA, Gendron, A, Bah, R and Kouassi, E (2008) Inflammatory cytokine alterations in schizophrenia: a systematic quantitative review. Biological Psychiatry 63, 801–808.
Rodrigues-Amorim, D, Rivera-Baltanas, T, Spuch, C, Caruncho, HJ, Gonzalez-Fernandez, A, Olivares, JM and Agis-Balboa, RC (2017) Cytokines dysregulation in schizophrenia: a systematic review of psychoneuroimmune relationship. Schizophrenia Research 197, 19–33.
Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics, C. (2014) Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci. Nature 511, 421–427.
Sheehan, DV, Lecrubier, Y, Sheehan, KH, Amorim, P, Janvas, J, Weiller, E, Hergueta, T, Baker, R and Dunbar, GC (1998) The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 59, 22–33.
Varese, F, Smeets, F, Drukker, M, Lieverse, R, Lataster, T, Viechtbauer, W, Read, J, van Os, J and Bentall, RP (2012) Childhood adversities increase the risk of psychosis: a meta-analysis of patient-control, prospective- and cross-sectional cohort studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin 38, 661–671.
W.H.O. (2008) ICD-10: International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems , 10th Rev. ed.. New York: World Health Organization.
Wechsler, D (1999) Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). New York: The Psychological Corporation.
Woods, SW (2003) Chlorpromazine equivalent doses for the newer atypical antipsychotics. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64, 663–667.
Young, RC, Biggs, JT, Ziegler, VE and Meyer, DA (1978) A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The British Journal of Psychiatry 133, 429–435.