Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

An investigation of the effects of intracerebral injection in the marmoset of cytopathic cerebrospinal fluid from patients with schizophrenia or neurological disease

  • H. F. Baker (a1), R. M. Ridley (a1), T. J. Crow (a1), C. A. Bloxham (a1), R. P. Parry (a1) and D. A. J. Tyrrell (a1)...

Synopsis

In experiments designed to investigate transmission, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with schizophrenia and neurological disease (Huntington's chorea and multiple sclerosis) which had been found to induce cytopathic effects in human embryonic fibroblast cell culture was injected intracerebrally into mice, hamsters and marmosets (small New World primates). No evidence was obtained of transmission to mice or hamsters. A total of 15 marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was injected intracerebrally with CSF [8 with samples from 4 patients with schizophrenia. 3 with samples from patients with neurological disease (2 with Huntington's chorea and 1 with multiple sclerosis) and 4 with samples from 3 patients without neurological or psychiatric disease] and was observed over a period of 2½ years.

Analysis of variance on data obtained from behavioural observations averaged over 6-month periods revealed that animals injected with CSF from patients with schizophrenia and neurological disease became progressively more inactive when compared with animals injected with CSF from control patients. The change detected by behavioural observation was confirmed as a difference 2 and 2½ years after injection by automated activity monitoring.

There was an incidence of reproductive anomalies (including two occipital encephalocoeles) in the females in the experimental group, but the numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions from this observation.

Many reported differences in biological samples from schizophrenic patients and normal controls have subsequently been found to be due to factors unrelated to the disease state. This may prove to be the case with the changes observed in this experiment. Nevertheless, the fact that marmosets injected with CSF from patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disease, including schizophrenia, subsequently differed in their behaviour from those injected with control CSF warrants further investigation.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An investigation of the effects of intracerebral injection in the marmoset of cytopathic cerebrospinal fluid from patients with schizophrenia or neurological disease
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An investigation of the effects of intracerebral injection in the marmoset of cytopathic cerebrospinal fluid from patients with schizophrenia or neurological disease
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An investigation of the effects of intracerebral injection in the marmoset of cytopathic cerebrospinal fluid from patients with schizophrenia or neurological disease
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

1Address for correspondence: Mr H. F. Baker, Division of Psychiatry, Clinical Research Centre, Watford Road, Harrow, Middlesex HA1 3UJ.

References

Hide All
Abe, K. (1963). Seasonal fluctuations of psychiatric admissions based on data from seven prefectures of Japan for a seven year period 1955–1961, with a review of the literature. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica 17, 101112.
Albrecht, P., Torrey, E. F., Boone, E., Hicks, J. T. & Daniel, N. (1980). Raised cytomegalovirus-antibody level in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients. Lancet ii, 769772.
Beck, E. & Daniel, P. M. (1979). Kuru and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease: neuropathological lesions and their significance. In Slow Transmissible Diseases of the Nervous System, Vol. 1 (ed. Prusiner, S. B. and Hadlow, W. J.), pp. 253270. Academic Press: New York.
Connell, P. H. (1958). Amphetamine Psychosis. Maudsley Monograph No. 5. Chapman and Hall: London.
Crow, T. J. (1978). Viral causes of psychiatric disease. Postgraduate Medical Journal 54, 763767.
Crow, T. J. (1981). Biological basis of mental disorders: the case for viral aetiology. In Epidemiological Impact of Psychotropic Drugs (ed. Tognoni, G., Bellantuono, C. and Lader, M.), pp. 3351. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press: Amsterdam.
Crow, T. J., Ferrier, I. N., Johnstone, E. C., Macmillan, J. F., Owens, D. G., Parry, R. P. & Tyrrell, D. A. J. (1979). Characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or neurological disorder and virus-like agent in cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet i, 842844.
Gajdusek, D. C., Gibbs, C. J. & Alpers, M. (1966). Experimental transmission of a Kuru-like syndrome to chimpanzees. Nature 209, 794796.
Gibbs, C. J., Gajdusek, D. C., Asher, D. M., Alpers, M. P., Beck, E., Daniel, P. M. & Matthews, W. B. (1968). Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (spongiform encephalopathy): transmission to the chimpanzee. Science 161, 388389.
Goodall, E. (1932). The exciting cause of certain states of disease, at present classified under ‘schizophrenia’ by psychiatrists, may be infection. Journal of Mental Science 78, 746755.
Hall, S. B. (1929). The mental aspect of epidemic encephalitis. British Medical Journal i, 444446.
Hare, E. H. (1975). Season of birth in schizophrenia and neurosis. American Journal of Psychiatry 132, 11681171.
Hare, E. H. & Walter, S. D. (1978). Seasonal variation in admissions of psychiatric patients and its relation to seasonal variation in their births. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 32, 4752.
Hendrick, I. (1928). Encephalitis lethargica and the interpretation of mental disease. American Journal of Psychiatry 7, 9891014.
Himmelhoch, J., Pincus, J., Tucker, G. & Detre, T. (1970). Subacute encephalitis: behavioural and neurological aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry 116, 531538.
Jelliffe, S. E. (1927). The mental pictures in schizophrenia and in epidemic encephalitis. American Journal of Psychiatry 6, 413465.
Johnson, R. T. (1980). Selective vulnerability of neural cells to viral infections. Brain 103, 447472.
Kalter, H. (1968). Teratology of the Central Nervous System. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
Klaber, M. & Lacy, J. (1968). Epidemic of glandular fever. British Medical Journal iii, 124.
McCowan, P. K. & Cook, L. C. (1928). The mental aspect of chronic epidemic encephalitis. Lancet i, 13161320.
Menninger, K. A. (1926). Influenza and schizophrenia. An analysis of post-influenzal ‘dementia praecox’as of 1918 and five years later. American Journal of Psychiatry 5, 469529.
Menninger, K. A. (1928). The schizophrenic syndrome as a product of acute infectious disease. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 20, 464481.
Misra, P. C. & Hay, G. G. (1971). Encephalitis presenting as acute schizophrenia. British Medical Journal i, 532533.
Miura, T., Tamura, H., Shimura, M. & Ogata, T. (1976). The influence of the season of birth on preventive efficacy of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine. Japanese Journal of Hygiene 31,520524.
Miura, T., Ogata, T. & Ema, M. (1977). An epidemiological study on the susceptibility of Japanese people to Japanese encephalitis virus by season of birth. Japanese Journal of Hygiene 32, 429433.
Owen, F., Cross, A. J., Crow, T. J., Longden, A., Poulter, M. & Riley, G. J. (1978). Increased dopamine-receptor sensitivity in schizophrenia. Lancet ii, 223226.
Petrov, P. A. (1970). Vilyuisk encephalitis in the Yakut Republic (USSR). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 19, 146150.
Poswillo, D. E., Hamilton, W. J. & Sopher, D. (1972 a). The marmoset as an animal model for teratological research. Nature 239, 460462.
Poswillo, D. E., Sopher, D. & Mitchell, S. (1972 b). Experimental induction of foetal malformation with blighted potato: a preliminary report. Nature 239, 462464.
Ravenholt, R. T. & Foege, W. H. (1982). 1918 influenza, encephalitis lethargica, Parkinsonism. Lancet ii, 860864.
Raymond, R. W. & Williams, R. L. (1948). Infectious mononucleosis with psychosis. New England Journal of Medicine 239, 542544.
Ridley, R. M. & Baker, H. F. (1982). Stereotypy in monkeys and humans. Psychological Medicine 12, 6172.
Ridley, R. M., Baker, H. F. & Scraggs, P. R. (1979). The time course of the behavioural effects of amphetamine and their reversal by haloperidol in a primate species. Biological Psychiatry 14, 753765.
Rzewuska-Szatkowska, M. (1972). A case of exogenous psychosis in the course of infectious mononucleosis. Psychiatria Polska 6,453456.
Saavedra, J. P. & Mazzuchelli, A. L. (1969). A stereotaxic atlas of the brain of the marmoset (Hapale jacchus). Journal für Hirnforschung 11, 105122.
Scraggs, P. R. & Ridley, R. M. (1978). Behavioural effects of amphetamine in a small primate: relative potencies of the d- and l-isomers. Psychopharmacology 59, 243245.
Siddall, R. A. (1978). The use of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in teratological and toxicological research. In Primates in Medicine, Vol. 10. (ed. Gengozian, N. and Deinhardt, F.). pp. 215224.
Sobin, A. & Ozer, M. N. (1966). Mental disorders in acute encephalitis. Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital 33, 7382.
Taylor, G. R., Crow, T. J., Ferrier, I. N., Johnstone, E. C., Parry, R. P. & Tyrrell, D. A. J. (1982). Virus-like agent in CSF in schizophrenia and some neurological disorders. Lancet ii, 11661167.
Torrey, E. F. & Peterson, M. R. (1973). Slow and latent viruses in schizophrenia. Lancet ii, 2224.
Torrey, E. F., Yolken, R. H. & Winfrey, C. J. (1982). Cytomegalovirus antibody in cerebrospinal fluid of schizophrenic patients detected by enzyme immunoassay. Science 216, 892894.
Tyrrell, D. A. J., Parry, R. P., Crow, T. J., Johnstone, E. C. & Ferrier, I. N. (1979). Possible virus in schizophrenia and some neurological disorders. Lancet i, 839841.
Von Economo, C. (1931). Encephalitis Lethargica; its Sequelae and Treatment (transl. Newman, K. O.). Oxford University Press:London.
Weinstein, E. A., Linn, L. & Kahn, R. L. (1955). Encephalitis with a clinical picture of schizophrenia. Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital 21, 341354.
Wilson, J. G. & Gavan, J. A. (1967). Congenital malformations in non-human primates: spontaneous and experimentally induced. Anatomical Record 158, 99109.

An investigation of the effects of intracerebral injection in the marmoset of cytopathic cerebrospinal fluid from patients with schizophrenia or neurological disease

  • H. F. Baker (a1), R. M. Ridley (a1), T. J. Crow (a1), C. A. Bloxham (a1), R. P. Parry (a1) and D. A. J. Tyrrell (a1)...

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed