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Reasoning bias, working memory performance and a transdiagnostic phenotype of affective disturbances and psychotic experiences in the general population

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  30 August 2018

Ulrich Reininghaus
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands Health Service and Population Research Department, Centre for Epidemiology and Public Health, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Christian Rauschenberg
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Margreet ten Have
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Ron de Graaf
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Saskia van Dorsselaer
Affiliation:
Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Institute of Mental Health and Addiction, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Claudia J. P. Simons
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands GGzE, Institute for Mental Health Care Eindhoven and De Kempen, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Nicole Gunther
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands School of Psychology, Open University, Heerlen, The Netherlands
Lotta-Katrin Pries
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Sinan Guloksuz
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
Rajiv Radhakrishnan
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA
Maarten Bak
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Jim van Os
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands Department of Psychiatry, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands Department of Psychosis Studies, King's Health Partners, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Background

The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

Methods

Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs.

Results

Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1–2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19–2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose–response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported.

Conclusion

The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.

Type
Original Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2018 

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Footnotes

*

These authors contributed as joint first authors

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