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Late preterm birth, post-term birth, and abnormal fetal growth as risk factors for severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 September 2014

M. Lahti
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
J. G. Eriksson
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, Finland Unit of General Practice, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland Folkhälsan Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland
K. Heinonen
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
E. Kajantie
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
J. Lahti
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
K. Wahlbeck
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland The Finnish Association for Mental Health, Helsinki, Finland
S. Tuovinen
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
A.-K. Pesonen
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
M. Mikkonen
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland
C. Osmond
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, UK
K. Räikkönen
Institute of Behavioural Sciences, University of Helsinki, Finland
E-mail address:



Late preterm births constitute the majority of preterm births. However, most evidence suggesting that preterm birth predicts the risk of mental disorders comes from studies on earlier preterm births. We examined if late preterm birth predicts the risks of severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood. We also studied whether adulthood mental disorders are associated with post-term birth or with being born small (SGA) or large (LGA) for gestational age, which have been previously associated with psychopathology risk in younger ages.


Of 12 597 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants, born 1934–1944, 664 were born late preterm, 1221 post-term, 287 SGA, and 301 LGA. The diagnoses of mental disorders were identified from national hospital discharge and cause of death registers from 1969 to 2010. In total, 1660 (13.2%) participants had severe mental disorders.


Individuals born late preterm did not differ from term-born individuals in their risk of any severe mental disorder. However, men born late preterm had a significantly increased risk of suicide. Post-term birth predicted significantly increased risks of any mental disorder in general and particularly of substance use and anxiety disorders. Individuals born SGA had significantly increased risks of any mental and substance use disorders. Women born LGA had an increased risk of psychotic disorders.


Although men born late preterm had an increased suicide risk, late preterm birth did not exert widespread effects on adult psychopathology. In contrast, the risks of severe mental disorders across adulthood were increased among individuals born SGA and individuals born post-term.

Original Articles
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Late preterm birth, post-term birth, and abnormal fetal growth as risk factors for severe mental disorders from early to late adulthood
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