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Impact of data extraction errors in meta-analyses on the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers: an umbrella review

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 November 2021

San Lee*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Psychiatry, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, Republic of Korea
Keum Hwa Lee
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Kyung Mee Park
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Department of Psychiatry, Yongin Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yongin, Republic of Korea
Sung Jong Park
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Won Jae Kim
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Jinhee Lee*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea
Andreas Kronbichler
Affiliation:
Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
Lee Smith
Affiliation:
The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
Marco Solmi
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Department of Mental Health, The Ottawa Hospital, Ontario, Canada Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI) Clinical Epidemiology Program, University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, UK
Brendon Stubbs
Affiliation:
Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London SE5 8AF, UK Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AZ, UK
Ai Koyanagi
Affiliation:
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, Barcelona, Spain
Louis Jacob
Affiliation:
Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France
Andrew Stickley
Affiliation:
Stockholm Center for Health and Social Change (SCOHOST), Södertörn University, Huddinge141 89, Sweden
Trevor Thompson
Affiliation:
Department of Psychology, University of Greenwich, LondonSE109LS, UK
Elena Dragioti
Affiliation:
Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, SE-581 85 Linköping, Sweden
Hans Oh
Affiliation:
School of Social Work, University of Southern California, CA, USA
Andre R. Brunoni
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany Department of Psychiatry, Service of Interdisciplinary Neuromodulation, Laboratory of Neurosciences (LIM-27) and National Institute of Biomarkers in Neuropsychiatry (INBioN), Institute of Psychiatry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitario, Faculdade de Medicina da USP, São Paulo, Brazil
Andre F. Carvalho
Affiliation:
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
Joaquim Radua
Affiliation:
Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, UK Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) Group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain
Suk Kyoon An
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Kee Namkoong
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Eun Lee*
Affiliation:
Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Institute of Behavioral Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Jae Il Shin*
Affiliation:
Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Paolo Fusar-Poli
Affiliation:
Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, UK OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy
*
Author for correspondence: Eun Lee, E-mail: leeeun@yuhs.ac; Jae Il Shin, E-mail: shinji@yuhs.ac
Author for correspondence: Eun Lee, E-mail: leeeun@yuhs.ac; Jae Il Shin, E-mail: shinji@yuhs.ac
Author for correspondence: Eun Lee, E-mail: leeeun@yuhs.ac; Jae Il Shin, E-mail: shinji@yuhs.ac
Author for correspondence: Eun Lee, E-mail: leeeun@yuhs.ac; Jae Il Shin, E-mail: shinji@yuhs.ac

Abstract

Background

Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in inflammatory biomarkers are important in depression. However, previous meta-analyses disagree on these associations, and errors in data extraction may account for these discrepancies.

Methods

PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched from database inception to 14 January 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies examining the association between depression and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were eligible. Errors were classified as follows: incorrect sample sizes, incorrectly used standard deviation, incorrect participant inclusion, calculation error, or analysis with insufficient data. We determined their impact on the results after correction thereof.

Results

Errors were noted in 14 of the 15 meta-analyses included. Across 521 primary studies, 118 (22.6%) showed the following errors: incorrect sample sizes (20 studies, 16.9%), incorrect use of standard deviation (35 studies, 29.7%), incorrect participant inclusion (7 studies, 5.9%), calculation errors (33 studies, 28.0%), and analysis with insufficient data (23 studies, 19.5%). After correcting these errors, 11 (29.7%) out of 37 pooled effect sizes changed by a magnitude of more than 0.1, ranging from 0.11 to 1.15. The updated meta-analyses showed that elevated levels of TNF- α, IL-6, CRP, but not IL-1β, are associated with depression.

Conclusions

These findings show that data extraction errors in meta-analyses can impact findings. Efforts to reduce such errors are important in studies of the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, for which high heterogeneity and conflicting results have been continuously reported.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Impact of data extraction errors in meta-analyses on the association between depression and peripheral inflammatory biomarkers: an umbrella review
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