Conventional antipsychotics, historically the mainstay of schizophrenia treatment, were ineffective in many patients, at least 30% fitting treatment-resistance criteria (Kane & Lieberman, 1987). All had the same mechanism of action: none was any more effective in the individual than any other. Therapeutic nihilism accepted poorly controlled positive symptoms and disabling negative symptoms: nearly all patients suffered side-effects (Barnes & Edwards, 1993), particularly extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) and hyperprolactinaemia. Conventional antipsychotics raise prolactin to a range associated with sexual dysfunction or even macroprolactinoma: effects in men include erectile dysfunction and hypospermatogenesis; in women, galactorrhoea, oligo- or amenorrhoea, hirsutism and increased risk of osteoporosis. In both men and women there is loss of libido, and a link between hyperprolactinaemia and weight gain.