Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Race and Religion in the Political Problematization of the American Muslim

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 October 2011

Iqbal Akhtar
Affiliation:
New College at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

This article examines how the American civil response to September 11 profoundly transformed the core of American Muslim political identity for a generation. I outline the evolving contours of the American Muslim as citizens after September 11 through an analysis of the impact of race and religion on two relationships: state to citizen and citizen to citizen. The American political response to September 11 had both positive and negative impacts for domiciled Muslims. At the national level, this event has forced American Muslims into a period of institution building and active citizenship while the federal government's response has problematized the Muslim as a continuous potential security threat. One simmering question for the American citizenry in general concerns the loyalty of the American Muslim. In the future, the American Muslim political class will be engaged in a continued effort to write Muslims into the American narrative in the same way that previous immigrant groups have fought to reappropriate “Americanness.” The larger philosophical question in this process is how, in doing so, this group can prove its loyalty to the nation while maintaining a distinctive religious culture and heritage. What will be the future core of the maturing American Muslim as both a citizen of the republic and a servant of his or her god?

Type
Features
Copyright
Copyright © American Political Science Association 2011

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

Aglionby, John. 2009. “Indonesia Tactical Change Pays Off.” Financial Times, December 28. http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/5d87dfae-f340-11de-a888-00144feab49a.html.Google Scholar
Al-Marayati, Laila. 2004. “American Muslim Charities: Easy Targets on the War on Terror.” Paper presented at the Pace University School of Law Symposium, December 3, New York.Google Scholar
Bayoumi, Moustafa. 2008. How Does It Feel To Be a Problem? Being Young and Arab in America. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
Bellah, Robert. 1975. The Broken Covenant: American Civil Religion in Time of Trial. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Bloom, A. D. 1987. The Closing of the American Mind. New York: Simon Schuster Trade.Google Scholar
Cimino, Richard. 2005. “‘No God in Common’: American Evangelical Discourse on Islam after 9/11.” Review of Religious Research 47 (2): 162–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). 2009. The Status of Muslim Civil Rights in the United States 2009: Seeking Full Inclusion. Washington, DC: CAIR. http://www.cair.com/Portals/0/pdf/CAIR-2009-Civil-Rights-Report.pdf.Google Scholar
Denny, F. M. 2011. “Umma.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Leiden: Brill, 859.Google Scholar
Fernandes, Devin, and Skerry, Peter. 2004. “Interpreting the Muslim Vote.” Boston Globe, November 26.Google Scholar
Fricker, Miranda. 2009. Epistemic Injustice: Power and the Ethics of Knowing. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Fricker, Miranda. 2010. “The Political Significance of Epistemic Trust.” Speech delivered at the University of Edinburgh, January 22, Edinburgh, UK.Google Scholar
Gellner, Ernest. 1992. Postmodernism, Reason and Religion. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gimpel, James G., Cho, Wendy K. Tam, and Wu, Tony. 2007. “Spatial Dimensions of Arab American Voter Mobilization after September 11.” Political Geography 26 (3): 330–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gottschalk, Peter, and Greenberg, Gabriel. 2008. Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. New York: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Haberski, Raymond J. Jr. 2010. “Ike, the Pledge, and Sacrificing for Civil Religion.” Paper presented at the American Politics Group Annual Conference, January 9, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
Ignatiev, Noel. 2008. How the Irish Became White. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
Jackson, Sherman. 2011. “Muslims, Islam(s), Race and American Islamaphobia.” In Islamophobia: The Challenge of Pluralism in the 21st Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 93108.Google Scholar
Jackson, Sherman. 2005. Islam and the Blackamerican: Looking toward the Third Resurrection. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamal, Amaney. 2005. “The Political Participation and Engagement of Muslim Americans: Mosque Involvement and Group Consciousness.” American Politics Research 33 (4): 521–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamal, Amaney, and Naber, Nadine, eds. 2008. Race and Arab Americans Before and After 9/11: From Invisible Citizens to Visible Subjects. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
Juergensmeyer, Mark. 2000. Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Milne, Seumas. 2001. “They Can't See Why They Are Hated: Americans Cannot Ignore What Their Government Does Abroad.” The Guardian, September 13.Google Scholar
Mearsheimer, J. J., and Walt, S. M.. 2008. The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
Modood, Tariq. 2007. Multiculturalism. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
The New York Times, n.d. The New York Times. [Online] Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/ref/international/24MEMO-GUIDE.html (Accessed July 7, 2011).Google Scholar
Nyang, Sulayman. 1999. Islam in the United States of America. Chicago: Kazi.Google Scholar
Owen, W., 1983. Dulce et Decorum Est. Online, Available at: http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/item/3303?CISOBOX=1&REC=5 (Accessed July 7, 2011).Google Scholar
Palmer, M. A., 2008. The Last Crusade: Americanism and the Islamic Reformation. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books.Google Scholar
Parker, Laura. 2004. “The Ordeal of Chaplain Yee.” USA Today, May 16. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2004-05-16-yee-cover_x.htm.Google Scholar
Patel, Eboo. 2007. Acts of Faith: The Story of an American Muslim, the Struggle for the Soul of a Generation. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
Peek, Lori. 2005. “Becoming Muslim: The Development of a Religious Identity.” Sociology of Religion 66 (3): 215–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Peña, A. 2009. “American Muslims' Civil Liberties and the Challenge to Effectively Avert Xenophobia.” Muslim World 99: 202–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pew Forum on Religion, and Public Life. 2009. Views of Religious Similarities and Differences: Muslims Widely Seen As Facing Discrimination. Washington, DC: The Pew Research Center for the People and the Press.Google Scholar
Pew Research Center. 2007. “American Muslims: Middle Class and Mostly Mainstream.” http://pewresearch.org/assets/pdf/muslim-americans.pdf.Google Scholar
Rose, A. 2001. How Did Muslims Vote in 2000? Middle East Quarterly VIII (3): 1327.Google Scholar
Roy, O. 2006. Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Safi, Omid, ed. 2003. Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism. New York: Oneworld.Google Scholar
Smith, Rogers M. 1999. Civic Ideals: Conflicting Visions of Citizenship in U.S. History. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
Takim, L. 2004. From Conversion to Conversation: Interfaith Dialogue in Post 9/11 America. The Muslim World 94: 343–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Takim, L. 2009. Shi'ism in America. New York: New York University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tolan, John V. 2002. Saracens. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
Tollefsen, Deborah. 2007. “Group Testimony.” Social Epistemology 21 (3): 299311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
U.S. Census Bureau, 2003. The Arab Population: 2000. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce.Google ScholarPubMed
U.S. Congress. House. 2003. H. Res. 234 [Report No. 108-249]: Condemning Bigotry and Violence against Arab-Americans, Muslim-Americans, South Asian-Americans, and Sikh-Americans. 108th Cong., 1st sess, May 14. http://bulk.resource.org/gpo.gov/bills/108/hr234rh.txt.pdf.Google Scholar
Winesman, Albert L. 2005. “U.S. Evangelicals: How Many Walk the Walk?Gallup, May 31. http://www.gallup.com/poll/16519/us-evangelicals-how-many-walk-walk.aspx.Google Scholar
Yee, J. 2005. For God and Country: Faith and Patriotism under Fire. New York: PublicAffairs.Google Scholar
Zelinsky, Wilbur. 2001. “The Uniqueness of the American Religious Landscape.” Geographical Review 91 (3): 565–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 57
Total number of PDF views: 244 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-86jzp Total loading time: 0.228 Render date: 2021-01-22T10:43:11.302Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "0", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Race and Religion in the Political Problematization of the American Muslim
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Race and Religion in the Political Problematization of the American Muslim
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Race and Religion in the Political Problematization of the American Muslim
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *