The Labiatae of SW Asia arc analysed. There is a major development of the family in this area with c. 1100 species, much morphological diversity, many illuminating distribution patterns and very high endemism levels; species endemism averages over 70% in the medium-sized and large genera. Areas of high concentrations of endemic taxa are indicated. The very significant differences between the Labiate floras of Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan throw doubt on designating all the steppic part of the area as Irano-Turanian; there is a strong Mediterranean floristic connection throughout much of Turkey and little evidence of Irano-Turanian influence. There are numerous taxonomically very isolated genera and species; some of these genera have very restricted distributions, a few are almost cosmopolitan.