Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Fluctuation and natural control of animal population, as exemplified in the garden chafer Phyllopertha horticola (L.)

  • A. Milne (a1)

Synopsis

The garden chafer. Phyllopertha horticola (L.), renews its population every June. Its numbers fluctuate irregularly from year to year. During 1947 75 in the English Lake District, it had two ‘outbreaks’ (with peaks in 1952 and 1975) separated by a long period of low population (1956–70). In nine of the years 1948 75, October population increased significantly over that of the preceding year: in eleven, it did not change significantly; and in ihe remaining eight, it decreased significantly. These fluctuations in numbers were due to fluctuations in the effective environmental factors (weather, enemies and intraspecific competition) influencing sun ival, fecundity and migration. Weather was more effective than enemies in this respect and intraspecific competition became important only when weather and enemies together failed to keep numbers from rising dangerously high for the chafer. Weather was, of course, density-independent in action. Among enemies, interspecific competitors were density-independent while pathogens, parasites and predators were all imperfectly density-dependent. The only perfectly density-dependent factor was intraspecific competition. These findings bear out Milne's theory (1957a et seq.) that for part of the time, natural control of population increase of any species X is due to the combined action of density-independent and imperfectly density-dependent environmental factors but, whenever this combined action fails (as inevitably it sometimes must), increase to the point of collective suicide is prevented by the one and only perfectly density-dependent factor, namely, intraspecific competition of X; on the other hand, decrease of numbers of X to zero is prevented ultimately by density-independent factors alone.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Bellows., J. S. (Jr.) 1981. The descriptive properties of some models for density dependence. J. Anim. Ecol. 50, 139156.
Bliss, C. I. 1953. Fitting the negative binomial distribution to biological data. The Biometric Soc. 9, 176200.
Cameron, A. E. 1941. Insect and other pests of 1940. Trans. Roy. Highld Agric. Soc. Scoll. (5) 53, 7797.
Danthanarayana, W. 1983. Population ecology of the light brown apple moth. Epiphyas postvittana (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). J. Anim. Ecol. 52, 134.
Dempster, J. P. 1983. The natural control of populations of butterflies and moths. Biol. Rev. 58, 461–181.
Elton, C. 1935. Animal Ecology. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.
Fisher, R. A. 1941. Statistical methods for research workers (8th edn), p. 177. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.
Gray, R. A. H., Peet, W. V. and Rogerson, J. P. 1947. Observations on the chafer grub problem in the Lake District. Bull. Em. Res. 37, 455–168.
Imms, A. D. 1947. Insect natural history, PI. 28 and pp. 132 & 159. London: Collins.
Laughlin, R. 1956. Storage and utilization of reserves by the garden chafer. Phyllopertha horticola (L.). J. Exp. Biol. 33, 566575.
Laughlin, R. 1957. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer. Phyllopertha horticola (L.). III. The growth of the larva. Bull. Em. Res. 48, 127154.
Laughlin, R. 1964. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L.). VIII. Temperature and larval growth. Bull. Em. Res. 54, 745759.
Meteorological Office. 1947–75. Mon. Weath. Rep. Land. 1947–75.
Milne, A. 1956. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L.). II. The cycle from egg to adult in the field. Bull. Em. Res. 47, 2342.
Milne, A. 1957a. The natural control of insect populations. Can. Em. 89, 193213.
Milne, A. 1957b. Theories of natural control of insect populations. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 22, 253271.
Milne, A. 1958a. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L.). IV. The flight season: introduction and general aspects. Bull. Em. Res. 49, 685699.
Milne., A. 1958b. Perfect and imperfect density dependence in population dynamics. Nature, Land. 182, 12511252.
Milne, A. 1959a. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola(L). V. The flight season: sex proportions. Bull. Ent. Res. 50, 3952.
Milne, A. 1959b. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L.). VI. The flight season: reproductive state of females. Bull. Em. Res. 50, 467486.
Milne, A. 1959c. The centric systematic area-sample treated as a random sample. Biometrics 15, 270297.
Milne, A. 1959d. Weather, enemies and natural control of insect populations. J. Econ. Ent. 52, 532533.
Milne, A. 1959e. A controversial equation in population ecology. Nature, Land. 184, 15821853.
Milne, A. 1960. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L.). VII. The flight season: male and female behaviour, and concluding discussion. Bull. Ent. Res. 51. 353378.
Milne, A. 1961. Definition of competition among animals. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 15, Mechanisms in biological competition, 4061.
Milne, A. 1962. On a theory of natural control of insect population. J. Theoret. Biol. 3, 1950.
Milne, A. 1964. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer. Phyllopertha horticola (L.). IX. Spatial distribution. Bull. Ent. Res. 54, 761795.
Milne, A. and Laughlin, R. 1956. Biology and ecology of the garden chafer, phyllopertha horticola (L.). I. The adult and egg production. Bull. Ent. Res. 47, 722.
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries 1942. Chafer beetles. Advis. Leafl. 235, 14. London: H.M.S.O.
Nakamura, M. 1965. Bio-economics of some larval populations of pleurostict Scarabeidae on the flood plain of the River Tamagawa. Jap. J. Ecol. 15, 118.
Nicholson, A. J. 1933. The balance of animal populations. J. Anim. Ecol. 2, 132178.
Nicholson, A. J. and Bailey, V. A. 1935. The balance of animal populations. Proc. Zool. Soc. Land. 1935 551598.
Oldham, C. 1933. Gulls feeding on beetles. Br. Birds 27, 169170.
Raw, F. 1951. The ecology of the garden chafer, Phyllopertha horticola (L). With preliminary observations on control measures. Bull. Ent. Res. 42, 605646.
Ritcher, P. O. 1958. Biology of the Scarabeidae. Ann. Rev. Ent. 3, 311334.
Schmidt., L. and Philips, Gj. 1958. Granulosis A new virus disease of the Fall Webworm Poljoprivredno. Sumarski Facultet. Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Institute of Entomology. Zagreb.
Schwerdtfeger, F. 1935. Studien über den Massenwechsel ciniger Forstshädlinge. Z. Forst- u. Jagdw. 67, 1538, 85–104, 449–482 & 513–540.
Schwerdtfeger, F. 1942. Über die Ursachen des Massenwechsels der Insekten. Z. Angew. Ent. 28, 254303.
Thomas, I. and Heal, G. M. 1944. Chafer damage to grassland in North Wales in 1942–1943 by Phyllopertha horticola L. and Hoplia philanthus Fuess. I. Notes on population, life history and morphology. Ann. Appl. Biol. 31, 124131.
Varley, G. C. 1947. The natural control of population balance in the knapweed gall-fly (Urophora jaceana). J. Anim. Ecol. 16, 139187.
Varley, G. C. 1949. Population changes in German forest pests. J. Anim. Ecol. 18, 117122.
Walker, M. G. 1943. Notes on the biology of Dexia rustica F.. a dipterous parasite of Melolontha melolontha L. Proc. Zool. Sot. Land. (A) 113, 126176

Fluctuation and natural control of animal population, as exemplified in the garden chafer Phyllopertha horticola (L.)

  • A. Milne (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.