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Littlewood–Paley characterizations of fractional Sobolev spaces via averages on balls

  • Feng Dai (a1), Jun Liu (a2), Dachun Yang (a2) and Wen Yuan (a2)


By invoking some new ideas, we characterize Sobolev spaces Wα,p(ℝn) with the smoothness order α ∊ (0, 2] and p ∊ (max{1, 2n/(2α + n)},), via the Lusin area function and the Littlewood–Paley g*λ-function in terms of centred ball averages. We also show that the assumption p ∊ (max{1, 2n/(2α + n)},) is nearly sharp in the sense that these characterizations are no longer true when p ∊ (1, max{1, 2n/(2α + n)}). These characterizations provide a possible new way to introduce Sobolev spaces with smoothness order in (1, 2] on metric measure spaces.


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