Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Crowning Glories: Languages of Hair in Later Prehistoric Europe

  • Miranda Aldhouse-Green (a1)

Abstract

In most societies, the presentation of human hair makes statements about projections of self, belonging, and difference. Drawing upon analogies from living traditions where hair makes an important contribution to symbolic grammars of personhood, this paper seeks to explore the evidence for symbolism associated with head and body hair in later European prehistory. This evidence is wide ranging, and includes the (exceptional) survival of hair in the archaeological record, iconography, and the equipment used for the management of hair. Questions are raised as to the manner in which hair may have been employed in visual languages, not only those associated with self-identity, but also in the presentation of ‘others’, whether social outcasts, sacrificial victims, shamed prisoners or special people, such as priests, shamans, or heroes. Issues of relationships between hair and gender are addressed, particularly with reference to iconography. The final part of the paper is concerned with the socio-political connotations associated with personal grooming and, in particular, the significance of adopting new, Roman, ways of managing hair in late Iron Age Britain.

Dans la plupart des sociétés, la présentation des cheveux humains constitue une affirmation sur la projection de soi, l'appartenance, et la différence. Faisant appel à des analogies avec des traditions vivantes dans lesquelles la chevelure apporte une importante contribution aux grammaires symboliques de la personnalité, cette étude cherche à explorer les témoignages d'un symbolisme associé à la chevelure et aux poils à la fin de la préhistoire européenne. Ces témoignages sont vastes, et comprennent des vestiges (exceptionnels) de cheveux dans les archives archéologiques, l'iconographie et l'équipement utilisé pour les soins aux cheveux. On soulève certaines questions quant à la manière dont il se pourrait que les cheveux aient été employés dans les langages visuels, non seulement ceux associés à sa propre identité, mais également dans la présentation des ‘autres’ que ce soient des exclus de la société, des victimes de sacrifices, des prisonniers humiliés, ou des personnes spéciales, telles que des prêtres, des shamans ou des héros. On examine la question des relations entre cheveux et sexe, particulièrement en se référant à l'iconographie. La dernière partie de l'étude se concentre autour des connotations socio-politiques associées aux soins à la personne et en particulier la signification de l'adoption de nouvelles façons, romaines, de se coiffer à la fin de l'âge du fer en Grande-Bretagne

In den meisten Gesellschaften sagt die Darstellung menschlichen Haars viel über die Projektionen von Selbstverständnis, Eigentum und Verschiedenheit aus. In Analogie zu noch lebendigem Brauchtum, in dem das Haar einen wichtigen Beitrag zur symbolischen Grammatik des Menschseins bildet, untersucht dieser Artikel Nachweise für einen Symbolismus, der mit dem Kopf und dem Körperhaar in der späteren europäischen Vorgeschichte assoziiert ist. Die Nachweise sind umfassend und schließen die (außergewöhnliche) Erhaltung von Haaren im archäologischen Befund, die Ikonographie sowie Utensilien zur Haarpflege mit ein. Es wird untersucht, wie die Haare in visuellen Sprachen benutzt worden sind; dabei geht es nicht nur um die Darstellung der eigenen Identität sondern auch um die Präsentation des, Anderen', ob es sich hierbei um sozial Ausgestoßene, Opfer, Gefangene oder besondere Personen, wie z.B. Priester, Schamanen oder Helden handelt. Es werden auch Fragen zum Verhältnis von Haar und Geschlecht betrachtet, besonders in Bezug zur Ikonographie. Der abschließende Teil des Beitrags beschäftigt sichmit den sozio-politischen Konnotationen, die mit persönlicher Pflege assoziiert sind, und besonders auch mit der Bedeutung neuer, römischer Haartrachten in der späten Eisenzeit Großbritanniens.

En la mayoría de las sociedades, la presentación del cabello humano hace una declaración sobre proyecciones de uno mismo, pertenencia, y diferencia. Basándose en analogías procedentes de tradiciones vivas donde el cabello contribuye de modo importante a las gramáticas simbólicas de la personalidad, este estudio explora la evidencia de simbolismo asociado con el pelo de la cabeza y del cuerpo en la prehistoria tardía de Europa. La evidencia es extensa e incluye la conservación (excepcional) de pelo en el registro arqueológico, en la iconografía y equipo utilizado para manejar el cabello. El trabajo despierta preguntas acerca del modo en el que el pelo pudo ser empleado en lenguages visuales, no solamente aquellos asociados con la identidad personal sino también en la presentación de “otros”, ya fueran marginados sociales, víctimas sacrificiales, prisioneros deshonrados o gente especial como sacerdotes, shamanes, o héroes. El trabajo trata el tema de la relación entre pelo y género, particularmente con referencia a la iconografía. La parte final del trabajo se ocupa de las connotaciones socio-políticas asociadas con el arreglo personal y, en particular, la importancia de la adopción de nuevos modos, romanos, de arreglarse el pelo en la tarda Edad del Hierro en Britania.

Copyright

References

Hide All
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. 2001a. Dying for the Gods. Human Sacrifice in Iron Age and Roman Europe. Stroud: Tempus
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. 2001b. Cosmovision and Metaphor: Monsters and Shamans in Gallo-British Cult-Expression. European Journal of Archaeology 4(2), 203–32
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. 2001c. Gender bending images: permeating boundaries in Ancient European iconography. In Wallis, R.J. & Lymer, K. (eds), A Permeability of Boundaries? New Approaches to the Archaeology of Art, Religion and Folklore. Oxford: British Archaeological Report S936, 1929
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. 2003. Poles apart? Perceptions of gender in Gallo-British cult-iconography. In Scott, S. & Webster, J. (eds), Roman Imperialism and Provincial Art, 95118. Cambridge: University Press
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. 2004a. An Archaeology of Images. Iconology and Cosmology in Iron Age and Roman Europe. London: Routledge
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. 2004b Semiologies of subjugation: the ritualisation of war-prisoners in later European Antiquity. In Vandkilde, H. (ed.), Warfare and Society from an Archaeological and Social Anthropological Perspective, in press. Århus: University
Aldhouse-Green, M.J. & Aldhouse-Green, S.H.R. 2004. The Quest for the Shaman in European Antiquity. London: Thames & Hudson
Allen, D. F. 1978. An Introduction to Celtic Coins. London: British Museum Publications
Anati, E. 1961. Camonica Valley. London: Jonathan Cape
Arnold, B. 1991. The deposed princess of Vix: the need for an engendered European prehistory. In Walde, D. & Willows, N.D. (eds), The archaeology of gender, 366–74. Calgary: University of Calgary Archaeological Association
Arnold, K. & Olsen, D. (eds). 2003. Medicine Man: the forgotten museum of Henry Wellcome (1853–1936). London: British Museum
Arnoldi, M.J. 1995a. Crowning Glories: the head and hair. In Arnoldi, & Kreamer, (eds) 1995 5367
Arnoldi, M.J. 1995b. Introduction. In Arnoldi, & Kreamer, (eds) 1995, 925
Arnoldi, M.J. & Kreamer, C. M. (eds). 1995. Crowning Achievements. African Arts of Dressing the Head. Los Angeles: Fowler Museum of Cultural History
Banks, I. 2000. Hair Matters. Beauty, Power, and Black Women's Consciousness. New York/London: New York University Press
Bartman, E. 2001. Hair and the artifice of Roman Female Adornment. American Journal of Archaeology 105, 125
Ben-Amos, P. 1983. In Honor of Queen Mothers. In Ben-Amos, P. & Rubin, A. (eds), The Art of Power. The Power of Art. Studies in Benin Iconography, 7983. Los Angeles: Museum of Cultural History, UCLA
Bennike, P. 1999. The Early Neolithic Danish bog-finds: a strange group of people! In Coles et al. (eds) 1999, 2732
Bennike, P. & Ebbesen, K. 1986. The bog find from Sigersdal. Human sacrifice in the Early Neolithic. Journal of Danish Archaeology 5, 85115
Bergen, C., Nickus, M.J.L.Th. & van Vilsteren, V.T.(eds). 2002. The Mysterious Bog People. Zwolle: Waanders Uitgevers (NL)
Beuker, J.R. 2002a. The greatest sacrifice: a human life. In Bergen, et al. (eds), 120–9
Beuker, J.R. 2002b. The Girl and the devil. In Bergen, et al. (eds), 107–9
Biel, J., Hundt, H.-J., Körber-Grohnr, U., Gauer, W. & Hartmann, A. 1985. Das Grab des Keltenfürsten. Ein Tresor voll archäologischer Überraschungen. In Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg. Der Keltenfürst von Hochdorf, 78161. Stuttgart: Landesdenkmalamt Baden-Württemberg
Blackmore, J. 1996. Outlining a ‘new’ region: the rock art of the Omburo Ost, Namibia. Paper delivered at the Theoretical Archaeology Group (TAG) Conference. Liverpool: University of Liverpool, December 1996
Boardman, J. 1973. Greek Art. London: Thames & Hudson (revised edn)
Bonenfant, P.-B. & Guillaumet, J.-P. 1998. La Statuaire Anthropomorphe du Premier Age du Fer. Besançon: Annales Litteraires de l'Université de Franche-Comte 667
Boon, G.C. 1991. Tonsur Humanus. Razor and toilet knife kits in Antiquity. Britannia 22, 2132
Brookes, A. 2004. The Visible Dead: a new approach to the study of Iron Age mortuary practice in south-eastern Britain. Unpublished PhD. Dissertation, Newport, University of Wales
Brothwell, D. & Bourke, J.B. 1995. The human remains from Lindow Moss 1987–8. In Turner, & Scaife, (eds) 1995, 52–8
Burkert, W. 1985. Greek Religion. Oxford: Blackwell
Campbell, R. (trans.) 1969. Seneca. Letters from a Stoic. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Carr, G. 2001. ‘Romanisation’ and the body. In Davies, G., Gardner, A. & Lockyear, K. (eds), TRAC 2000. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference London 2000, 112–24. Oxford: Oxbow
Chapman, J. 2000. Fragmentation in Archaeology: people, places and broken objects in the prehistory of south eastern Europe. London: Routledge
Clément, M. 1986. Les dieux gaulois. In Cozan, J.Y. (ed.), Au Temps des Celtes Ve – ler Siècle avant J.C., 132–43. Quimper: Association Abbaye de Daoulas. Musée Départemental Breton de Quimper
Cole, H.M. 1979. Living art among the Samburu. In Cordwell, J. & Schwartz, R. (eds), The Fabrics of Culture: the anthropology of clothing and adornment, 8792. New York: Mouton Publishers
Coles, B. 1990. Anthropomorphic wooden figures from Britain and Ireland. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 56:, 315–33
Coles, B. 1998. Wood species for wooden figures: a glimpse of a pattern. In Gibson, A. & Simpson, D.D.A. (eds), Prehistoric Ritual and Religion, 163–73. Stroud: Sutton
Coles, J. 1990. Images of the Past. A guide to the rock carvings and other ancient monuments of Northern Bohuslän. Uddevalla: Risbergs Tryckeri/Hällristningsmuseet Vitlycke
Coles, J. 2000. Patterns in a Rocky Land: rock carvings in south-west Uppland, Sweden. Uppsala: Department of Archaeology & Ancient History, University of Uppsala
Conkey, M. & Gero, J. 1991. Tensions, pluralities and engendering archaeology. In Gero, J. & Conkey, M. (eds), Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, 330Oxford: Blackwell
Coombs, D. 1992. Flag Fen platform and Fengate power station alignment – the metalwork. Antiquity 66, 504–17
Creighton, J. 2000. Coins and Power in Late Iron Age Britain. Cambridge: University Press
Croom, A.T. 2000. Roman Clothing and Fashion. Stroud: Tempus
Csordas, T.J. (ed.) 1994. Embodiment and Experience. The Existential Ground of Culture and Self. Cambridge: University Press
Cunliffe, B. 1991. Iron Age Communities in Britain. London: Routledge
Daire, M.-Y. & Languet, L. 1992. Une Sculpture anthropomorphe gauloise dans un enclos à Yvignac (Côte d'Armor). Les Dossiers du Ce. R.R.A. 20, 516
Davies, D.J. 1997. Death, Ritual and Belief. London/New York: Continuum
Dean, C. 1983. The individual and the Ancestral: Ikegobo and Ukurbe. In Ben-Amos, P. & Rubin, A. (eds), The Art of Power. The Power of Art. Studies in Benin Iconography, 3340. Los Angeles: University of California
Deyts, S. 1992. Images de Dieux de la Gaule. Paris: Errance
Dowson, T. 1992. Rock Engravings of Southern Africa. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press
Dronfield, J. 1996. Entering alternative realities: cognition, art and architecture in Irish passage-tombs. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6(1), 3792
Durand, J.-L. 1989. Greek animals: a typology of edible bodies. In Detienne, M. & Vernant, J.-P. (eds), The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks, 87118. Chicago: University Press.
Duval, P.-M. 1987. Monnaies Gauloises et Mythes Celtiques. Paris: Hermann
Ebong, I. (ed.). 2001. Black Hair. New York: Universe Publishing
Eibner-Persy, A. 1980. Hallstattzeitliche Grabhügel von Sopron (Ödenburg): die Funde der Grabungen 1890–92 in der Prdhistorischen Abteilung des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien und im Burgenländischen Landesmuseum in Eistenstadt. Eisenstadt: Burgenländ; Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland 62
Elderfield, J. 1999. Introduction. In Alexander, M. Darsie, Chan, M., Figura, S., Ganz, S. & Gonzalez, M. Carmen (eds), Body Language, 614. New York: The Museum of Modern Art, New York/Harry Abrams
Eogan, G. 1994. The Accomplished Art. Gold and Gold-Working in Britain and Ireland during the Bronze Age. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 42
Erim, K.T. 1982. A new relief showing Claudius and Britannia from Aphrodisias. Britannia 13, 277–81
Espérandieu, E. 1911. Recueil Général des Bas-Reliefs de la Gaule Romaine et Pré-Romaine vol. 4. Paris: Ernest Leroux
Espérandieu, E. 1938. Recueil Général des Bas-Reliefs de la Gaule Romaine et Pré-Romaine vol. 11. Paris: Ernest Leroux
Ferguson, J. 1989. Among the Gods. London: Routledge
Ferris, I. 1994. Insignificant Others; images of barbarians on military art from Roman Britain. In Cottam, S., Dungworth, D., Scott, S. & Taylor, J. (eds), TRAC 94. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference Durham 1994, 2431. Oxford: Oxbow
Ferris, I. 2000. Enemies of Rome. Barbarians Through Roman Eyes. Stroud: Sutton
Ferris, I. 2003. The Hanged Men Dance: barbarians in Trajanic art. In Scott, S. & Webster, J. (eds), Roman Imperialism and Provincial Art, 5368. Cambridge: University Press
Filer, J.M. 1997. Ancient Egypt and Nubia as a source of information for violent cranial injuries. In Carman, J. (ed.), Material Harm. Archaeological Studies of War and Violence, 4774. Glasgow: Cruithne Press
Fitzpatrick, A.P. 2002. The Amesbury Archer: ‘King of Stonehenge?’, PAST 41, 12
Foster, J. 1977. Bronze Boar-Figurines in Iron Age and Roman Britain. Oxford: British Archaeological Report 39
Foxhall, L. 1994. Pandora unbound: a feminist critique of Foucault's History of Sexuality. In Cornwall, A. & Lindisfarne, N. (eds), Dislocating Masculinity, 133–46. London: Routledge
Frey, O.-H. 1996/1997. Die neuen Keltenfunde vom Glauberg. Nürnberger Blätter zur Archäologie 13, 2538
Frey, O.-H. 1998. The Stone Knight, the Sphinx and the Hare: new aspects of early figural art. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 64, 114
Gantz, J. 1981. trans. The Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel. In Early Irish Myths and Sagas. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Gebühr, M. 1979. Das Kindergrab von Windeby. Versuch einer ‘Rehabilitation’. Offa. Berichte und Mitteilungen zur Urgeschichte, Frühgesichte und Mittelalterarchäolog 36, 75107
Gebühr, M. 2002. Moorleichen in Schleswig-Holstein. Schleswig: Archäologisches Landesmuseum der Stiftung Schleswig-Holsteinische Landesmuseen Schloß Gottorf
Glob, P.V. 1969. Halleristninger i Danmark. Jutland Archaeological Society Publications 7
Green, M.J. 1991. Sun Gods and Symbols of Ancient Europe. London: Batsford
Green, M.J. 1992a. Animals in Celtic Life and Myth. London: Routledge
Green, M.J. 1992b. The iconography of Celtic coins. In Mays, M. (ed.), Celtic Coinage: Britain and Beyond. The Eleventh Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary History, 151–63. Oxford: Tempus Reparatum/British Archaeological Report 222
Green, M.J. 1995. Celtic Goddesses. Warriors, Virgins and Mothers. London: British Museum
Green, M.J. 1996. Celtic Art. Reading the Messages. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson
Green, M.J. 1997. Images in opposition: polarity, ambivalence and liminality in cult representation. Antiquity 71, 898911
Gruel, K. 1989. La Monnaie chez les Gaulois. Paris: Errance/Collection des Hesperides
Guillaumet, J.P. 2003. Les personages accroupis: essai de classement. In Büchsenschutz, O., Bulard, A., Chardenoux, M.-B. & Ginoux, N. (eds), Décors, images et signes de l'âge du Per européen. XXVIe Colloque de l'Association Prancaise pour l'Etude de l'Age du Fer, Paris et Saint-Denis 9–12 mai 2002, 171–82. Tours: FERACF
Haaland, G. & Haaland, R. 1996. Levels of meaning in symbolic objects. In Hamilton, N., Marcus, J., Bailey, D., Haaland, G., Haaland, R. & Ucko, P.J., Can we interpret figurines?. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6(2), 295300
Hachmann, R. 1990. Gundestrup-Studien. Bericht der Römisch-Germanischen Kommission 71, 565903
Hägg, I. 2001. Sacrificed garments. In Gebühr, M., Nydam and Thorsberg. Iron Age Places of Sacrifice, 28–9. Schleswig: Archäologisches Landesmuseum Schloß Gottorf
Haselgrove, C. 2003. Society and polity in Late Iron Age Britain. In Todd, M. (ed.), A Companion to Roman Britain, 1229. Oxford: Blackwell
Henriques, F. 1953. Family and Colour in Jamaica. London: Eyre & Spottiswood
Herity, M. & Eogan, G. 1989. Ireland in Prehistory. London: Routledge
Hill, J.D. 1997. The end of one kind of body and the beginning of another kind of body? Toilet instruments and ‘Romanization’. In Gwilt, A. & Haselgrove, C. (eds), Reconstructing Iron Age Societies, 96107. Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 71
Holden, T.G. 1995. The last meals of the Lindow Bog men. In Turner, & Scaife, (eds) 1995, 7682
Hoppál, M. 1992. Shamanism: an archaic and/or recent system of beliefs. Iin Siikala, A.-L. & Hoppál, M. (eds), Studies in Shamanism, 117131. Budapest: Akademiai Kiádo
Hughes, D. 1991. Human Sacrifice in Ancient Greece. London: Routledge
Hutton, R. 2001. Shamans. Siberian Spirituality and the Western Imagination. London: Hambledon & London
Hvass, L. 2001. Oldtiden I Danmark. Jernalderen. Copenhagen: Sesam
Jackson, R. 1985. Cosmetic sets from late Iron Age and Roman Britain. Britannia 16, 165–92
Jacobsthal, P. 1944. Early Celtic Art. Oxford: Clarendon Press
Jerem, E. & Lippert, A. (eds). 1996. Die Osthallstattkultur. Akten des Internationalen Symposiums. Sopron 1014Mai 1994, Budapest: Archaeolingua
Joffroy, R. 1979. Musée des Antiquités Nationales, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Paris: Editions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux
Jundi, S. & Hill, J.D. 1997. Brooches and identities in first century AD Britain: more than meets the eye?. In Forcey, C., Hawthorne, J. & Witcher, R. (eds), TRAC 97. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference Nottingham 1997, 125137. Oxford: Oxbow
Kaul, F. 1991. Gundestrupkedlen. Copenhagen: Nationalmuseet
Kaul, F. 1995. The Gundestrup Cauldron reconsidered. Acta Archaeologia 66, 138
Keppie, L.J.F. & Arnold, B.J. 1984. Corpus Signorum Imperil Romani. Corpus of Sculpture of the Roman World. Great Britain. Volume I, Fascicule 4. Scotland, Oxford/London: Oxford University Press/British Academy
Kimmig, W. 1987. Eisenzeitliche Grabstelen in Mitteleuropa. Fundberichte aus Baden-Württemberg 12, 251–97
Kipling, R. 1951. Just So Stories. London: Macmillan
Klindt-Jensen, O. 1949. Foreign influences in Denmark's Early Iron Age. In Acta Archaeologica XX, 1229
Kratz, C. 1988. Okiek ornaments of transition and transformation. Kenya Past and Present 20, 21–6
Leach, E. 1958. Magical hair. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 88, 147–64
Le Bohec, Y. 1994. The Imperial Roman Army. London: Routledge (trans. Raphael Bate)
Lejars, T. & Perrin, F. 2000. Des tombes de druids? In Guichard, V. & Perrin, F. (eds), Les Druides. Paris: L'Archéologie Hors Série 12, 3740
Lewis-Williams, D. 2002. The Mind in the Cave. London: Thames & Hudson
Mattingly, H. 1948 (trans.). Tacitus on Britain and Germany, West Drayton: Penguin
McClintock, A. 1995. Imperial Leather. Race, Gender and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest. London: Routledge
Meek, J. 2003. Welcome to Guantanamo. The Guardian G2, 03.12.03
Megaw, J.V.S. 1970. Art of the European Iron Age. New York: Harper & Row
Megaw, R. & Megaw, V. 1989. Celtic Art from its Beginnings to the Book of Kells. London: Thames & Hudson
Megaw, M.R. & Megaw, J.V.S. 1998. The stone head from Msecke Zehrovice: an essay on the human head in early Celtic art. In Venclová, N., Mšecké Zehrovice in Bohemia. Archaeological Background to a Celtic Hero 3rd–2nd cent. B.C, 281326. Sceaux: Kronos Editions
Meyer, L. 2001. Black Africa. Masks, Sculpture, Jewellery. Paris: Editions Pierre Terrail
Montserrat, D. 2000. Reading gender in the Roman world. In Huskinson, J. (ed.), Experiencing Rome. Culture, Identity and Power in the Roman Empire, 153–81. London/Milton Keynes: Routledge/Open University Press
Müller, K.E. 2002. Sacrifices in traditional cultures. In Bergen, et al. (eds) 2002, 34–7
Nerzic, C. 1989. La Sculpture en Gaule Romaine. Paris: Errance
Nomberg-Przytyk, 1985. Auschwitz. True Tales from a Grotesque Land (Trans Hirsch, Roslyn. Edited by Pfefferkorn, Eli & Hirsch, David) Chapel Hill and London: University of North Carolina Press
Oertelt, H. A. 2000. An Unbroken Chain. My Journey through the Nazi Holocaust. Minneapolis: Lerner Publications Company
Olmsted, G.S. 1979. The Gundestrup Cauldron. Brussels: Collection Latomus 162
Parker Pearson, M. 1999. The Archaeology of Death and Burial. Stroud: Sutton
Pobé, M. & Roubier, J. 1961. The Art of Roman Gaul. London: Gallery Press
Priuli, A. 1996. Arte Rupestre. Le Più Antiche Manifestazioni Spirituali Paleoiconografia Camuna e delle Genti Alpine. Turin: Collana I Grandi Libri
Purves, L. 2002. Forget Cuba, what about our hell-holes? The Times 22.1.02
Redknap, M. 1991. The Christian Celts. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales
Rolle, R. 1992. Die skythenzeitlichen Mumienfunde von Pazyryk Frostkonserviete Gräber aus dem Altaigebirge. In Höpfel, F., Platzer, W. & Spindler, K. (eds), Der Mann im Eis. Band 1, 334–58. Innsbruck: Berischt über das Internationale Symposium
Rolle, R. & Seemann, H. 1992. Haar und Bart als individuelles Kennzeichen, 110–39. Miinster: Westfälisches Museumsamt. Bilder Früher Menschen Archäologischen Rekunstruktion
Rolle, R. & Seemann, H. 1999. Haar- und Baartracht. In Beck, H., Geuenich, D., Steuer, H. & Timpe, D. (eds), Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde Band 13, 232–40. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter
Rudenko, S.I. 1970 (trans. Thompson, M.W.). Frozen Tombs of Siberia. The Pazyryk Burials of Iron Age Horsemen. London: J.M. Dent (originally published in 1953 as Kultura Naseleniya Gornogo Altaya v Skifskoe Vronya, Moscow/Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR).
Savory, H.N. 1976. Guide Catalogue of the Early Iron Age Collections. Cardiff: National Museum of Wales
Scaife, R.G. 1995. Pollen analysis of the Lindow III food residue. In Turner, & Scaife, (eds) 1995, 83–5
Segy, L. 1975. African Sculpture Speaks. New York: Da Capo Press
Settis, S., La Regina, A., Agosti, G. & Farinella, V. 1988. La Colonna Traiana, Torino: Guilio Einaudi editore
Shinnie, P.L. 1967. Meroe. A Civilization of the Sudan. London: Thames & Hudson
Shinnie, P.L. 1996. Ancient Nubia. London/New York: Kegan Paul International
Sieber, R. & Walker, R.A. 1987. African Art in the Cycle of Life. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution/National Museum of African Art
Siegel, R.K. 1984. Hostage hallucinations: visual imagery induced by isolation and life-threatening stress. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 172(5), 264–72
Sieveking, A. 1993. The use of stylistic analysis within the context of West European Upper Palaeolithic Art. In Lorblanchet, M. & Bahn, P.G. (eds), Rock Art Studies: the Post-Stylistic Era or Where do we go from here?, 2736Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 35
Sørensen, M.L. 1991. The construction of gender through appearance. In Walde, D. & Willows, N.D. (eds), The Archaeology of Gender, 121–9. Calgary: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Chacmool Conference/The Archaeological Association of the University of Calgary
Stead, I.M., Bourke, J.B. & Brothwell, D. 1986. Lindow Man. The Body in the Bog. London: British Museum Publications
Stead, I.M. 1988. Chalk figurines of the Parisi. The Antiquaries Journal 28, 929
Stead, I. & Rigby, V. 1989. Verulamium. The King Harry Lane Site. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report 12
Stollner, T. 2003. The economy of Dürrnberg bei Hallein: an Iron Age salt-mining centre in the Austrian Alps. Antiquaries Journal 83, 123–94
Taylor, J. 1980. Bronze Age Goldwork of the British Isles. Cambridge: University Press
Taylor, T. 2003. The Buried Soul. How Humans Invented Death. London: Fourth Estate
Terzan, B. 1996. Weben und Zeitmessen im Siidostalpinen und Westpannonischen Gebiet. In Jerem, & Lippert, (eds), 507–29
Thompson, F.H. 2003. The Archaeology of Greek and Roman Slavery. London: Duckworth
Tierney, J.J. 19591960. The Celtic ethnography of Posidonius. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 60, 189275
Tilley, C. 1999. Metaphor and Material Culture. Oxford: Blackwell
Tranoy, A. 1988. Du Heros Au Chef. L'image du guerrier dans les sociétés indigènes du nord-ouest de la péninsule ibérique (Iie siècle avant J.-C. - Ier siecle apres J.-C). In Université de Tours Actes du Colloque 16–17 mat 1987. Le Monde des Images en Gaule et dans le provinces voisines, 219–28. Paris: Errance/Caesarodunm Tome 23.
Treherne, P. 1994. Technologies of the body and the self personal ‘toilet articles’ in the Nordic Early Bronze Age. Unpublished M.Phil, dissertation, University of Cambridge
Treherne, P. 1995. The warrior's beauty: the masculine body and self-identity in Bronze Age Europe. European Journal of Archaeology 3(1), 105144
Turner, R.C. 1995. Discoveries and excavations at Lindow Moss 1983–8. In Turner, & Scaife, (eds) 1995, 1018
Turner, R.C. & Scaife, R.G. (eds). 1995. Bog Bodies. New Discoveries and New Perspectives. London: British Museum Press
Ucko, P.J. 1996. ‘Mother, are you there?’ In Hamilton, N., Marcus, J., Bailey, D., Haaland, G., Haaland, R. & Ucko, P.J., Can we interpret figurines?. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 6(2), 300–4
van der Sanden, W. 1994. Het meisje van Yde. Assen: Drents Museum
van der Sanden, W.A.B. 1995. Bog bodies on the Continent: developments since 1965, with special reference to the Netherlands. In Turner, R.C. & Scaife, R.G. (eds) 1995, 146–65
van der Sanden, W. 1996. Through Nature to Eternity. The bog-bodies of northwest Europe. Amsterdam: Batavian Lion International
van der Sanden, W. 1999. Wetland archaeology in the province of Drenthe, the Netherlands. In Coles, B., Coles, J. & Jørgensen, M. Schou (eds), Bog Bodies, Sacred Sites and Wetland Archaeology, 217–25. Exeter: WARP (Wetland Archaeology Research Project) Occasional Paper 12, Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter
van der Sanden, W. & Capelle, T. 2001. Mosens Guder. Antropomorfe traefurer fra Nord-og Nordvesteuropas fortid/ Immortal Images. Ancient Anthropomorphic Wood Carvings from Northern and Northwest Europe. Silkeborg: Silkeborg Museum
Venclová, N. 2002. The Venerable Bede, druidic tonsure and archaeology. Antiquity 76, 458–71
Vitebsky, P. 1995. The Shaman. Voyages of the Soul. Trance, Ecstasy and Healing from Siberia to the Amazon. London: Macmillan
Wedlake, W.J. 1982. The Excavation of the Shrine of Apollo at Nettleton, Wiltshire, 1956–1971. London: Society of Antiquaries of London/Thames & Hudson
Wellesley, K. 1964. trans. Tacitus. The Histories. Harmondsworth: Penguin
Welsby, D.A. 1996. The Kingdom of Kush. The Napatan and Meroitic Empires. London: British Museum Press
Williams, H. (ed.). 2003. Archaeologies of Remembrance. Death and Memory in Past Societies. New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers
Williams, M. 2003. Tales from the dead. In Williams, H. (ed.), 2003, 89112
Wylie, A. 1996. The interplay of evidential constraints and political interests: recent archaeological research on gender. In Preucel, R. & Hodder, I. (eds), Contemporary Archaeology in Theory. A Reader, 431–59. Oxford: Basil Blackwell
Yates, T. 1993. Frameworks for an archaeology of the body. In Tilley, C. (ed.), Interpretative Archaeology, 3172. Oxford: Berg
Zanker, P. 1988. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed