Allgrove, J (2004) Is nutritional rickets returning? Archives of Disease in Childhood 89, 699–701.
American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (2006) Primer of the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 6th ed. Washington, DC: The American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Arnaud, SB, Stickler, GB & Haworth, JC (1976) Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in infantile rickets. Pediatrics 57, 221–225.
Ashraf, S & Mughal, MZ (2002) The prevalence of rickets among non-Caucasian children. Archives of Disease in Childhood 87, 263–264.
Barzel, US (1995) The skeleton as an ion exchange system: implications for the role of acid-base imbalance in the genesis of osteoporosis. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 1431–1436.
Bilezikian, JP, Raisz, LG & Rodan, GA (editors) (2002) Principles of Bone Biology, vol. 1 and 2. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Giovannuci, E, Willett, WC, Dietrich, T & Dawson-Hughes, B (2006) Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84, 18–28.
Bonjour, J-P, Ammann, P, Chevalley, T, Ferrari, S & Rizzoli, R (2003) Nutritional aspects of bone growth: an overview. In Nutritional Aspects of Bone Health, pp. 111–128 [New, SA and Bonjour, J-P editors]. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Branca, F (2003) Dietary phyto-oestrogens and bone health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 877–887.
Brooke, OG, Brown, IRF, Bone, CDM, Carter, ND, Cleeve, HJW, Maxwell, JD, Robinson, VP & Winder, SM (1980) Vitamin D supplements in pregnant Asian women: Effects on Ca status and fetal growth. British Medical Journal 280, 751–754.
Brooke, OG, Butters, F & Wood, C (1981) Intrauterine vitamin D nutrition and postnatal growth in Asian infants. British Medical Journal 283, 1024.
Buclin, T, Cosma, M, Appenzeller, M, Jacquet, AF, Decosterd, LA, Biollaz, J & Buckhardt, P (2001) Diet acids and alkalis influence Ca retention in bone. Osteoporosis International 12, 493–499.
Bugel, S (2003) Vitamin K and bone health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 839–843.
Cadogan, J, Eastell, R, Jones, N & Barker, ME (1997) Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial. British Medical Journal 315, 1255–1260.
Calvo, M & Carpenter, T (2003) The influence of phosphorus on the skeleton. In Nutritional Aspects of Bone Health, pp. 229–265 [New, SA and Bonjour, J-P editors]. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Cashman, KD (2005) Vitamin K may be an important determinant of childhood bone health. Nutrition Reviews 63, 284–289.
Cole, TJ (2004) Modeling postnatal exposures and their interactions with birth size. Journal of Nutrition 134, 201–204.
Cooper, C, Campion, G & Melton, LJ (1992) Hip fractures in the elderly: a world-wide projection. Osteoporosis International 2, 285–289.
Cooper, C, Cawley, M, Bhalla, A, Egger, P, Ring, F, Morton, L & Barker, D (1995) Childhood growth, physical activity, and peak bone mass in women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 940–947.
Cooper, C, Eriksson, JG, Forsen, T, Osmond, C, Tuomilehto, J & Barker, DJ (2001) Maternal height, childhood growth and risk of hip fracture in later life: a longitudinal study. Osteoporosis International 12, 623–629.
Cooper, C, Fall, C, Egger, P, Hobbs, R, Eastell, R & Barker, D (1997) Growth in infancy and bone mass in later life. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 56, 17–21.
Cooper, C, Westlake, S, Harvey, N, Javaid, K, Dennison, E & Hanson, M (2006) Review: developmental origins of osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis International 17, 337–347.
Dagnelie, PC, Vergote, FJ, van Staveren, WA, van den Berg, H, Dingian, PG & Hautvast, JG (1990) High prevalence of rickets in infants on macrobiotic diets. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 202–208.
Davies, JH, Evans, BA & Gregory, JW (2005) Bone mass acquisition in healthy children. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90, 373–378.
de Onis, M & Blossner, M (2003) The World Health Organization global database on child growth and malnutrition: methodology and applications. International Journal of Epidemiology 32, 518–526.
Dennison, EM, Syddall, HE, Sayer, AA, Gilbody, HJ & Cooper, C (2005) Birth weight and weight at 1 year are independent determinants of bone mass in the seventh decade: the Hertfordshire cohort study. Pediatric Research 57, 582–586.
Department of Health (1998) Nutrition and Bone Health: With Particular Reference to Ca and Vitamin D. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 49. London: The Stationery Office.
Dibba, B, Prentice, A, Ceesay, M, Stirling, DM, Cole, TJ & Poskitt, EME (2000) Effect of Ca supplementation on bone mineral accretion in Gambian children accustomed to a low Ca diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 544–549.
Ferrari, SL, Chevalley, T, Bonjour, JP & Rizzoli, R (2006) Childhood fractures are associated with decreased bone mass gain during puberty: an early marker of persistent bone fragility? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 21, 501–507.
Fewtrell, MS (2003) Bone densitometry in children assessed by dual x ray absorptiometry: uses and pitfalls. Archives of Disease in Childhood 88, 795–798.
Fitzpatrick, L & Heaney, RP (2003) Got soda? Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 18, 1570–1572.
Fraser, DR (2004) Vitamin D-deficiency in Asia. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 89–90, 491–495.
Fulkerson, JA, Himes, JH, French, SA, Jensen, S, Petit, MA, Stewart, C, Story, M, Ensrud, K, Fillhouer, S & Jacobsen, K (2004) Bone outcomes and technical measurement issues of bone health among children and adolescents: considerations for nutrition and physical activity intervention trials. Osteoporosis International 15, 929–941.
Ganpule, A, Yajnik, CS, Fall, CHD, Rao, S, Fisher, DJ, Kanade, Aet al. (2006) Bone mass in Indian children; relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy; the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 91, 2994–3001.
Gibney, MJ, Vorster, HH & Kok, FJ (editors) (2002) Introduction to Human Nutrition. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Ginty, F (2003) Dietary protein and bone health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 867–876.
Ginty, F, Prentice, A, Laidlaw, A, McKenna, L, Jones, SC, Stear, SJ & Cole, TJ (2004) Calcium carbonate supplementation is associated with higher plasma IGF-1 in 16–18 year old boys and girls. In Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, 2nd ed., pp. 45–57 [Burckhardt, P, Dawson-Hughes, B and Heaney, RPeditors]. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Science.
Ginty, F, Prynne, CJ, Muniz-Terrera, G, Mishra, GD, Prentice, A & O'Connell, MA (2005) No evidence for a negative assocation between bone mineral status and indirect estimates of renal net acid excretion in adolescents. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64, 80A.
Glorieux, F, Jueppner, H & Pettifor, JM (2003) Pediatric Bone – Biology and Diseases. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Science.
Gluckman, PD & Pinal, CS (2003) Regulation of fetal growth by the somatotrophic axis. Journal of Nutrition 133, 1741S–1746S.
Goulding, A, Jones, IE, Taylor, RW, Williams, SM & Manning, PJ (2001) Bone mineral density and body composition in boys with distal forearm fractures: a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry study. Journal of Paediatrics 139, 509–515.
Goulding, A, Jones, IE, Williams, SM, Grant, AM, Taylor, RW, Manning, PJ & Langley, J (2005) First fracture is associated with increased risk of new fractures during growth. Journal of Pediatrics 146, 286–288.
Goulding, A, Rockell, JE, Black, RE, Grant, AM, Jones, IE & Williams, SM (2004) Children who avoid drinking cow's milk are at increased risk for prepubertal bone fractures. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 104, 250–253.
Goulding, A, Taylor, RW, Jones, IE, McAuley, KA, Manning, PJ & Williams, SM (2000) Overweight and obese children have low bone mass and area for their weight. International Journal of Obesity 24, 627–632.
Goulding, A, Taylor, RW, Jones, IE, Manning, PJ & Williams, SM (2002) Spinal overload: a concern for obese children and adolescents? Osteoporosis International 13, 835–840.
Gregory, J, Lowe, S, Bates, C, Prentice, A, Jackson, L, Smithers, G, Wenlock, R & Farron, M (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years. vol. 1: Report of the Diet and Nutrition Survey. London: The Stationery Office.
Gregory, JR, Collins, DL, Davies, PSW, Hughes, JM & Clarke, PC (1995) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Children Aged 1·5 to 4·5 Years. London: HM Stationery Office.
Heaney, RP (2001) The bone remodeling transient: interpreting interventions involving bone-related nutrients. Nutrition Reviews 59, 327–334.
Heaney, RP (2004) Nutrients, interactions and foods: the importance of source. In Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, 2nd ed., pp. 61–78 [Burckhardt, P, Dawson-Hughes, B and Heaney, RPeditors]. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Science.
Heaney, RP, Abrams, S, Dawson-Hughes, B, Looker, A, Marcus, R, Matkovic, V & Weaver, C (2000) Peak bone mass. Osteoporosis International 11, 985–1009.
Heaney, RP & Rafferty, K (2001) Carbonated beverages and urinary Ca excretion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74, 343–347.
Hoppe, C, Mølgaard, C & Michaelsen, KF (2004a) High intakes of skimmed milk, but not meat, increase serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in eight year old boys. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 1211–1216.
Hoppe, C, Udam, TR, Lauritzen, L, Mølgaard, C, Juul, A & Michaelsen, KF (2004b) Animal protein intake, serum insulin-like growth factor I, and growth in healthy 2·5-y-old Danish children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 447–452.
Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Jarjou, LMA, Prentice, A, Sawo, Y, Laskey, MA, Bennett, J, Goldberg, GR & Cole, TJ (2006) Randomized, placebo-controlled Ca supplementation study of pregnant Gambian women: effects on breast-milk Ca concentration and infant birth weight, growth and bone mineral accretion in the first year of life. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, 657–666.
Javaid, MK, Crozier, SR, Harvey, NC, Gale, CR, Dennison, EM, Boucher, BJ, Arden, NK, Godfrey, KM & Cooper, C (2006) Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and childhood bone mass at age 9 years: a longitudinal study. Lancet 367, 36–43.
Jones, G & Dwyer, T (2000) Birth weight, birth length, and bone density in prepubertal children: evidence for an association that may be mediated by genetic factors. Calcified Tissues International 67, 304–308.
Jones, G, Riley, MD & Dwyer, T (2000) Maternal diet during pregnancy is associated with bone mineral density in children: a longitudinal study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 749–756.
Jones, IE, Williams, SM & Goulding, A (2004) Associations of birth weight and length, childhood size, and smoking with bone fractures during growth: evidence from a birth cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology 159, 343–350.
Juul, A, Bang, P, Hertel, NT, Main, K, Dalgaard, P, Jorgensen, K, Muller, J, Hall, K & Skakkebaek, NE (1994) Serum insulin-like growth factor-I in 1030 healthy children, adolescents, and adults: relation to age, sex, stage of puberty, testicular size, and body mass index. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 78, 744–752.
Kalkwarf, HJ, Khoury, JC, Bean, J & Elliot, JG (2004) Vitamin K, bone turnover, and bone mass in girls. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, 1075–1080.
Kapoor, A, Dunn, E, Kostaki, A, Andrews, MH & Matthews, SG (2006) Fetal programming of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal function: prenatal stress and glucocorticoids. Journal of Physiology 572, 31–44.
Khosla, S, Melton, LJ III, Dekutoski, MB, Achenbach, SJ, Oberg, AL & Riggs, BL (2003) Incidence of childhood distal forearm fractures over 30 years. A population-based study. Journal of the American Medical Association 290, 1479–1485.
Klein, GL, Fitzpatrick, LA, Langman, CB, Beck, TJ, Carpenter, TO, Gilsanz, V, Holm, IA, Leonard, MB & Specker, BL (2005) The state of pediatric bone: summary of the ASBMR Pediatric Bone Initiative. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 20, 2075–2081.
Koo, WW, Walters, JC, Esterlitz, J, Levine, RJ, Bush, AJ & Sibai, B (1999) Maternal Ca supplementation and fetal bone mineralisation. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94, 577–582.
Lambert, J, Agostoni, C, Elmadfa, I, Hulshof, K, Krause, E, Livingstone, B, Socha, P, Pannemans, D & Samartin, S (2004) Dietary intake and nutritional status of children and adolescents in Europe. British Journal of Nutrition 92, Suppl. 2, S147–S211.
Langley-Evans, SC (2006) Developmental programming of health and disease. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 65, 97–105.
Lanham-New, SA (2006) Fruit and vegetables: the unexpected natural answer to the question of osteoporosis prevention? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, 1254–1255.
Lanou, AJ, Berkow, SE & Barnard, ND (2005) Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence. Pediatrics 115, 736–743.
Laskey, MA & Prentice, A (1999) Comparison of adult and paediatric spine and whole body software for the Lunar dual energy X-ray absorptiometer. British Journal of Radiology 72, 967–976.
Lawson, M & Thomas, M (1999) Vitamin D concentrations in Asian children aged 2 years living in England: population survey. British Medical Journal 318, 28–29.
Leonard, MB, Shults, J, Elliott, DM, Stallings, VA & Zemel, BS (2004) Interpretation of whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures in children: comparison with peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone 34, 1044–1052.
Levine, RA (2003) Biochemical markers of bone metabolism: application to understanding bone remodeling in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 16, Suppl. 3, 661–672.
McGartland, C, Robson, PJ, Murray, L, Cran, G, Savage, MJ, Watkins, D, Rooney, M & Boreham, C (2003) Carbonated soft drink consumption and bone mineral density in adolescence: The Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 18, 1563–1569.
Ma, D & Jones, G (2004) Soft drink and milk consumption, physical activity, bone mass and upper limb fractures in children: a population-based case-control study. Calcified Tissue International 75, 286–291.
Manias, K, McCabe, D & Bishop, N (2006) Fractures and recurrent fractures in children; varying effects of environmental factors as well as bone size and mass. Bone 39, 652–657.
Marcus, R, Feldman, D & Kelsey, J (1996) Osteoporosis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Massey, LK & Whiting, SJ (2003) Excess dietary protein and bone health. In Nutritional Aspects of Bone Health, pp. 213–228 [New, SA and Bonjour, J-Peditors]. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Mølgaard, C, Thomsen, BL, Prentice, A, Cole, TJ & Michaelsen, KF (1997) Whole body bone mineral content in healthy children and adolescents. Archives of Diseases in Childhood 76, 9–15.
Neville, CE, Robson, PJ, Murray, LJ, Strain, JJ, Twisk, J, Gallagher, AM, McGuinness, M, Cran, GW, Ralston, SH & Boreham, CA (2002) The effect of nutrient intake on bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland Young Hearts project. Calcified Tissue International 70, 89–98.
New, SA (2003) Intake of fruit and vegetables: implications for bone health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 62, 889–899.
New, SA (2004) Do vegetarians have a normal bone mass? Osteoporosis International 15, 679–688.
New, SA, MacDonald, HM, Campbell, MK, Martin, JC, Garton, MJ, Robins, SP & Reid, DM (2004) Lower estimates of net endogenous non-carbonic acid production are positively associated with indexes of bone health in premenopausal and perimenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 131–138.
Petit, MA, Beck, TJ & Kontulainen, SA (2005) Examining the developing bone: What do we measure and how do we do it? Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions 5, 213–224.
Pettifor, JM (2003) Nutritional rickets. In Pediatric Bone – Biology and Diseases, pp. 541–566 [Glorieux, F, Jueppner, H and Pettifor, JMeditors]. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Science.
Prentice, A (1995) Application of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and related techniques to the measurement of bone and body composition. In Body Composition Techniques in Health and Disease, pp. 1–13 [Davies, PSW and Cole, TJeditors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Prentice, A (1997) Is nutrition important in osteoporosis? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 357–367.
Prentice, A (2001) The relative contribution of diet and genotype to bone development. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 1–8.
Prentice, A (2004) Diet, nutrition and osteoporosis. Public Health Nutrition 7, 237–254.
Prentice, A (2006) Studies of Gambian and UK children and adolescents: insights into Ca requirements and adaptation to a low Ca intake. In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis, Lausanne, Switzerland. (In the Press).
Prentice, A & Bates, CJ (1994) Adequacy of dietary mineral supply for human bone growth and mineralisation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48, Suppl. 1, S161–S176.
Prentice, A, Bonjour, J-P, Branca, F, Cooper, C, Flynn, A, Garabedian, M, Muller, D, Pannemans, D & Weber, P (2003) PASSCLAIM – Bone Health and Osteoporosis. European Journal of Nutrition 42, Suppl. 1, I/28–I/49.
Prentice, A, Branca, F, Decsi, T, Michaelsen, KF, Fletcher, R, Guesry, P, Manz, F, Vidailhet, M, Pannemans, D & Samartin, S (2004) Energy and nutrient dietary reference values for children in Europe: methodological approaches and current nutritional recommendations. British Journal of Nutrition 92, Suppl. 2, S83–S146.
Prentice, A, Ginty, F, Stear, SJ, Jones, SC, Laskey, MA & Cole, TJ (2005) Calcium supplementation increases stature and bone mineral mass of 16- to 18-year-old boys. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90, 3153–3161.
Prentice, A, Parsons, TJ & Cole, TJ (1994) Uncritical use of bone mineral density in absorptiometry may lead to size-related artifacts in the identification of bone mineral determinants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 837–842.
Prynne, CJ, Ginty, F, Paul, AA, Bolton-Smith, C, Stear, SJ, Jones, SC & Prentice, A (2004) Dietary acid-base balance and intake of bone-related nutrients in Cambridge teenagers. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58, 1462–1471.
Prynne, CJ, Mishra, G, O'Connell, MA, Muniz, G, Laskey, MA, Yan, L & Prentice, A (2006) Fruit and vegetable intakes and bone mineral status: a cross-sectional study in 5 age and sex cohorts. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 83, 1420–1428.
Ralston, SH (2007) Genetics of osteoporosis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (In the Press).
Raman, L, Rajalakshmi, K, Krishnamachari, KAVR & Sastry, KG (1978) Effect of Ca supplementation on undernourished mothers during pregnancy on the bone density of the neonates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 21, 466–469.
Remer, T & Manz, F (1995) Potential renal acid load of foods and its influence on urine pH. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95, 791–797.
Seeman, E (1998) Growth in bone mass and size – are racial and gender differences in bone mineral density more apparent than real? Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83, 1414–1419.
Seeman, E (2002) Pathogenesis of bone fragility in women and men. Lancet 359, 1841–1850.
Seeman, E & Hopper, J (1997) Genetic and environmental components of the population variance in bone density. Osteoporosis International 7, Suppl. 3, S10–S16.
Seeman, E, Karlsson, MK & Duan, Y (2000) On exposure to anorexia nervosa, the temporal variation in axial and appendicular skeletal development predisposes to site-specific deficits in bone size and density: a cross-sectional study. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 15, 2259–2265.
Shaw, NJ & Pal, BR (2002) Vitamin D deficiency in UK Asian families: activating a new concern. Archives of Disease in Childhood 86, 147–149.
Shenoy, SD, Swift, P, Cody, D & Iqbal, J (2005) Maternal vitamin D deficiency, refractory neonatal hypocalcaemia, and nutritional rickets. Archives of Disease in Childhood 90, 437–438.
Skaggs, DL, Loro, ML, Pitukcheewanont, P, Tolo, V & Gilsanz, V (2001) Increased body weight and decreased radial cross-sectional dimensions in girls with forearm fractures. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 16, 1337–1342.
Stear, SJ, Prentice, A, Jones, SC & Cole, TJ (2003) Effect of a Ca and exercise intervention on the bone mineral status of 16–18 y-old adolescent girls. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77, 985–992.
Storey, ML, Forshee, RA & Anderson, PA (2004) Associations of adequate intake of Ca with diet, beverage consumption, and demographic characteristics among children and adolescents. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23, 18–33.
Szulc, P, Seeman, E & Delmas, PD (2000) Biochemical measurements of bone turnover in children and adolescents. Osteoporosis International 11, 281–294.
Tanner, JM (1962) Growth at Adolescence, 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
Tobias, JH & Cooper, C (2004) PTH/PTHrP activity and the programming of skeletal development in utero. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 177–182.
Tobias, JH, Steer, CD, Emmett, PM, Tonkin, RJ, Cooper, C & Ness, AR (2005) Bone mass in childhood is related to maternal diet in pregnancy. Osteoporosis International 16, 1731–1741.
Underwood, P & Margetts, B (1987) High levels of childhood rickets in rural North Yemen. Social Science and Medicine 24, 37–41.
Whiting, SJ, Healey, A, Psiuk, S, Mirwald, R, Kowalski, K & Bailey, DA (2001) Relationship between carbonated and other low nutrient dense beverages and bone mineral content of adolescents. Nutrition Research 21, 1107–1115.
Widdowson, EM & Dickerson, JWT (1964) Chemical composition of the body. In Mineral Metabolism, pp. 1–247 [Comar, CL and Bronner, Feditors]. New York: Academic Press.
Willett, AM (2005) Vitamin D status and its relationship with parathyroid hormone and bone mineral status in older adolescents. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 64, 193–203.
Winzenberg, TM, Shaw, K, Fryer, J & Jones, G (2006) Calcium supplementation for improving bone mineral density in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, issue 3. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization (2003) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease. Geneva: WHO.
Zamora, SA, Rizzoli, R, Belli, DC, Slosman, DO & Bonjour, JP (1999) Vitamin D supplementation during infancy is associated with higher bone mineral mass in prepubertal girls. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84, 4541–4544.