Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contents:

Information:

  • Access

Actions:

      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        A survey of enterally tube fed patients receiving ~800 kcal/d tube feeding regimens
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        A survey of enterally tube fed patients receiving ~800 kcal/d tube feeding regimens
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        A survey of enterally tube fed patients receiving ~800 kcal/d tube feeding regimens
        Available formats
        ×
Export citation

The British Artificial Nutrition Survey suggests that patients receiving long term tube feeding are an increasingly dependent population with low activity levels(1). It has been suggested that such patients may have lower energy requirements than predicted and need low energy tube feeding regimens in order to prevent weight gain(2, 3). However there is little published information about the use of low energy tube feeding regimens in the UK. Therefore a survey to investigate and characterise the numbers and types of patients receiving low energy tube feeding regimens of ~800 kcal total energy per day was undertaken.

A survey of adult tube fed patients (≥18yrs) who were receiving a low energy tube feeding regimen (receiving <1000 kcal/day) was undertaken in patients receiving enteral tube feeding at home (HETF) (n 1400) or in a long term neuro-rehabilitation centre (n 108) between July and September 2009. A standardised questionnaire, which included patient demographics (age, location, dependency, activity levels, diagnosis), tube type and feeding regimen details (duration, timing, energy and volume prescription) and reasons for low energy tube feeding, was completed for each patient from their dietetic notes.

2.2% (33/1508) of patients were receiving mean actual energy intakes of 800 kcal/d (SD 69, range 600–900 kcal/d) as a sole source of nutrition (this would equate to approximately 500 patients in the UK based on BANS data1). These patients had a mean age of 44yrs (SD 19, range 21–80), mean BMI: 24.8 kg/m2 (SD 4.6), a mean time on tube feeding of 6yrs (SD 5, range 1.3–22yrs) and a mean time receiving ~800 kcal/d of 2.3yrs (range 7 days–16yrs, 16 patients (49%) had been receiving ~800 kcal/d for >1 yr). The majority of patients had severe learning disabilities (n 9), severe neuro-disabilities (n 7) or stroke (n 4). Patients resided either in nursing homes (64%) or their own/family homes (36%). All patients required full assistance for daily activities (100%) and were all very immobile (bed bound or bed rest (91%), very sedentary (9%)). Dietitians had prescribed ~800 kcal/d due to the patients' low energy requirements and gradual weight gain over time on higher energy regimens. The majority of patients (n=21) were receiving regimens of between 600–900 kcal/d from a tube feed or sip feeds alone, regimens that were deficient in protein, electrolytes, vitamins and minerals. The remaining patients were receiving a number of feeding products to meet their nutritional requirements which were deficient in potassium, high in calcium and very complex and time consuming to provide.

The data from this survey suggests that ~2% of home enterally tube fed patients' are currently receiving ~800 kcal/d as a sole source of nutrition, with the use of a variety of nutritionally inadequate regimens. In addition to the need for a low energy nutritionally complete tube feeding regimen, more research is required to understand the nutritional requirements of this patient group.

With thanks to the Dietetic Dept at Nottingham University Hospitals.

1.British Artificial Nutrition Survey (BANS) (2009) BAPEN.
2.Dickerson, RN, Brown, RO & Gervasio, JG et al. (1999) J Am Coll Nutr 18, 6168.
3.Leone, and Pencharz, (2010) Clin Nutr 29, 370–72.