1.Gulland, A (2010) Obesity among 65 s in UK reflects lifetime of gaining weight. BMJ 341, c3585.
2.Stenholm, S, Simonsick, EM & Ferrucci, L (2010) Secular trends in body weight in older men born between 1877 and 1941: the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65, 105–110.
3.Visser, M, Pluijm, SM, van der Horst, MH et al. . (2005) Lifestyle of Dutch people aged 55–64 years less healthy in 2002/’03 than in 1992/’93. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 149, 2973–2978 (in Dutch).
4.Eiben, G, Dey, DK, Rothenberg, E et al. . (2005) Obesity in 70-year-old Swedes: secular changes over 30 years. Int J Obes 29, 810–817.
5.Houston, DK, Nicklas, BJ & Zizza, CA (2009) Weighty concerns: the growing prevalence of obesity among older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 109, 1886–1895.
6.Jensen, GL & Hsiao, YP (2010) Obesity in older adults: relationship to functional limitation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 46–51.
7.Larrieu, S, Pérès, K, Letenneur, L et al. . (2004) Relationship between body mass index and different domains of disability in older persons: the 3C study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 1555–1560.
8.Guallar-Castillón, P, Sagardui-Villamor, J, Banegas, JR et al. . (2007) Waist circumference as a predictor of disability among older adults. Obesity 15, 233–244.
9.Koster, A, Patel, KV, Visser, M et al. . (2008) Joint effects of adiposity and physical activity on incident mobility limitation in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 56, 636–643.
10.Visser, M, Langlois, J, Guralnik, JM et al. . (1998) High body fatness, but not low fat-free mass, predicts disability in older men and women: the cardiovascular health study. Am J Clin Nutr 68, 584–590.
11.Visser, M, Goodpaster, BH, Kritchevsky, SB et al. . (2005) Muscle mass, muscle strength, and muscle fat infiltration as predictors of incident mobility limitations in well-functioning older persons. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60, 324–333.
12.Koster, A, Penninx, BW, Newman, AB et al. . (2007) Lifestyle factors and incident mobility limitation in obese and non-obese older adults. Obesity 15, 3122–3132.
13.Fine, JT, Colditz, GA, Coakley, EH et al. . (1999) A prospective study of weight change and health-related quality of life in women. JAMA 282, 2136–2142.
14.Busetto, L, Romanato, G, Zambon, S et al. . (2009) The effects of weight changes after middle age on the rate of disability in an elderly population sample. J Am Geriatr Soc 57, 1015–1021.
15.Heim, N, Snijder, MB, Heymans, MW et al. . (2010) Exploring cut-off values for large waist circumference in older adults: a new methodological approach. J Nutr Health Aging 14, 272–277.
16.Janssen, I & Mark, AE (2007) Elevated body mass index and mortality risk in the elderly. Obes Rev 8, 41–59.
17.Alley, DE & Chang, VW (2007) The changing relationship of obesity and disability, 1988–2004. JAMA 298, 2020–2027.
18.Stenholm, S, Rantanen, T, Alanen, E et al. . (2007) Obesity history as a predictor of walking limitation at old age. Obesity 15, 929–938.
19.Houston, DK, Ding, J, Nicklas, BJ et al. . (2009) Overweight and obesity over the adult life course and incident mobility limitation in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. Am J Epidemiol 169, 927–936.
20.Villareal, DT, Banks, M, Sinacore, DR et al. . (2006) Effect of weight loss and exercise on frailty in obese older adults. Arch Intern Med 166, 860–866.
21.Christensen, R, Bartels, EM, Astrup, A et al. . (2007) Effect of weight reduction in obese patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 66, 433–439.
22.Shah, K, Wingkum, NJ, Lambert, CP et al. . (2008) Weight-loss therapy improves endurance capacity in obese older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 56, 1157–1159.
23.Villareal, DT, Apovian, CM, Kushner, RF et al. . (2005) Obesity in older adults: technical review and position statement of the American Society for Nutrition and NAASO, The Obesity Society. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 923–934.
24.Rosenberg, IH (1997) Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance. J Nutr 127(Suppl), 990S–991S.
25.Roubenoff, R & Hughes, VA (2000) Sarcopenia: current concepts. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 55, M716–M724.
26.Cruz-Jentoft, AJ, Landi, F, Topinková, E et al. . (2010) Understanding sarcopenia as a geriatric syndrome. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 13, 1–7.
27.Goodpaster, BH, Park, SW, Harris, TB et al. . (2006) The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 61, 1059–1064.
28.Visser, M (2009) Towards a definition of sarcopenia – results from epidemiologic studies. J Nutr Health Aging 13, 713–716.
29.Baumgartner, RN, Koehler, KM, Gallagher, D et al. . (1998) Epidemiology of sarcopenia among the elderly in New Mexico. Am J Epidemiol 147, 755–763.
30.Janssen, I, Baumgartner, RN, Ross, R et al. . (2004) Skeletal muscle cutpoints associated with elevated physical disability risk in older men and women. Am J Epidemiol 159, 413–421.
31.Newman, AB, Kupelian, V, Visser, M et al. . (2003) Sarcopenia: alternative definitions and associations with lower extremity function. J Am Geriatr Soc 51, 1602–1609.
32.Delmonico, MJ, Harris, TB, Lee, JS et al. . (2007) Alternative definitions of sarcopenia, lower extremity performance, and functional impairment with aging in older men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc 55, 769–774.
33.Visser, M, Harris, TB, Langlois, J et al. . (1998) Body fat and skeletal muscle mass in relation to physical disability in very old men and women of the Framingham Heart Study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 53, M214–M221.
34.Lebrun, CE, van der Schouw, YT, de Jong, FH et al. . (2006) Fat mass rather than muscle strength is the major determinant of physical function and disability in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age. Menopause 13, 474–481.
35.Zoico, E, Di Francesco, V, Mazzali, G et al. . (2007) High baseline values of fat mass, independently of appendicular skeletal mass, predict 2-year onset of disability in elderly subjects at the high end of the functional spectrum. Aging Clin Exp Res 19, 154–159.
36.Jankowski, CM, Gozansky, WS, Van Pelt, RE et al. . (2008) Relative contributions of adiposity and muscularity to physical function in community-dwelling older adults. Obesity 16, 1039–1044.
37.Rolland, Y, Lauwers-Cances, V, Cristini, C et al. . (2009) Difficulties with physical function associated with obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic-obesity in community-dwelling elderly women: the EPIDOS (EPIDemiologie de l'OSteoporose) Study. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1895–1900.
38.Clark, BC & Manini, TM (2008) Sarcopenia =/= dynapenia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 63, 829–834.
39.Lauretani, F, Russo, CR, Bandinelli, S et al. . (2003) Age-associated changes in skeletal muscles and their effect on mobility: an operational diagnosis of sarcopenia. J Appl Physiol 95, 1851–1860.
40.Visser, M, Deeg, DJ, Lips, P et al. . (2000) Skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength in relation to lower-extremity performance in older men and women. J Am Geriatr Soc 48, 381–386.
41.Ferrucci, L, Penninx, BW, Volpato, S et al. . (2002) Change in muscle strength explains accelerated decline of physical function in older women with high interleukin-6 serum levels. J Am Geriatr Soc 50, 1947–1954.
42.Fiatarone, MA, O'Neill, EF, Ryan, ND et al. . (1994) Exercise training and nutritional supplementation for physical frailty in very elderly people. N Engl J Med 330, 1769–1775.
43.Chandler, JM, Duncan, PW, Kochersberger, G et al. . (1998) Is lower extremity strength gain associated with improvement in physical performance and disability in frail, community-dwelling elders? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79, 24–30.
44.Vincent, KR, Braith, RW, Feldman, RA et al. . (2002) Resistance exercise and physical performance in adults aged 60 to 83. J Am Geriatr Soc 50, 1100–1117.
45.Rantanen, T, Guralnik, JM, Foley, D et al. . (1999) Midlife hand grip strength as a predictor of old age disability. JAMA 281, 558–560.
46.Zamboni, M, Mazzali, G, Fantin, F et al. . (2008) Sarcopenic obesity: a new category of obesity in the elderly. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 18, 388–395.
47.Baumgartner, RN, Wayne, SJ, Waters, DL et al. . (2004) Sarcopenic obesity predicts instrumental activities of daily living disability in the elderly. Obes Res 12, 1995–2004.
48.Davison, KK, Ford, E, Cogswell, M et al. . (2002) Percentage of body fat and body mass index are associated with mobility limitations in people aged 70 and older from NHANES III. J Am Geriatr Soc 50, 1802–1809.
49.Zoico, E, Di Francesco, V, Guralnik, JM et al. . (2004) Physical disability and muscular strength in relation to obesity and different body composition indexes in a sample of healthy elderly women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 234–241.
50.Bouchard, DR, Dionne, IJ & Brochu, M (2009) Sarcopenic/obesity and physical capacity in older men and women: data from the nutrition as a determinant of successful aging (NuAge)-the Quebec longitudinal Study. Obesity 17, 2082–2088.
51.Stenholm, S, Harris, TB, Rantanen, T et al. . (2008) Sarcopenic obesity: definition, cause and consequences. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 11, 693–700.
52.Stenholm, S, Alley, D, Bandinelli, S et al. . (2009) The effect of obesity combined with low muscle strength on decline in mobility in older persons: results from the InCHIANTI study. Int J Obes 33, 635–644.
53.Bouchard, DR & Janssen, I (2010) Dynapenic-obesity and physical function in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 65, 71–77.