Skip to main content Accessibility help

Investigating cholesterol metabolism and ageing using a systems biology approach

  • A. E. Morgan (a1), K. M. Mooney (a2), S. J. Wilkinson (a1), N. A. Pickles (a3) and M. T. Mc Auley (a1)...


CVD accounted for 27 % of all deaths in the UK in 2014, and was responsible for 1·7 million hospital admissions in 2013/2014. This condition becomes increasingly prevalent with age, affecting 34·1 and 29·8 % of males and females over 75 years of age respectively in 2011. The dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism with age, often observed as a rise in LDL-cholesterol, has been associated with the pathogenesis of CVD. To compound this problem, it is estimated by 2050, 22 % of the world's population will be over 60 years of age, in culmination with a growing resistance and intolerance to pre-existing cholesterol regulating drugs such as statins. Therefore, it is apparent research into additional therapies for hypercholesterolaemia and CVD prevention is a growing necessity. However, it is also imperative to recognise this complex biological system cannot be studied using a reductionist approach; rather its biological uniqueness necessitates a more integrated methodology, such as that offered by systems biology. In this review, we firstly discuss cholesterol metabolism and how it is affected by diet and the ageing process. Next, we describe therapeutic strategies for hypercholesterolaemia, and finally how the systems biology paradigm can be utilised to investigate how ageing interacts with complex systems such as cholesterol metabolism. We conclude by emphasising the need for nutritionists to work in parallel with the systems biology community, to develop novel approaches to studying cholesterol metabolism and its interaction with ageing.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Investigating cholesterol metabolism and ageing using a systems biology approach
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Investigating cholesterol metabolism and ageing using a systems biology approach
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Investigating cholesterol metabolism and ageing using a systems biology approach
      Available formats


Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: M. T. Mc Auley, email


Hide All
1. OFNS (2013) Mortality Assumptions, 2012-based National Population Projections.
2. WHO (2014) Aging and life course: facts about aging.
3. Prince, MJ, Wu, F, Guo, Y et al. (2015) The burden of disease in older people and implications for health policy and practice. Lancet 385, 549562.
4. Gould, AL, Davies, GM, Alemao, E et al. (2007) Cholesterol reduction yields clinical benefits: meta-analysis including recent trials. Clin Ther 29, 778794.
5. Morgan, AE, Mooney, KM, Wilkinson, SJ et al. (2016) Cholesterol metabolism: a review of how ageing disrupts the biological mechanisms responsible for its regulation. Ageing Res Rev 27, 108124.
6. Millar, JS, Lichtenstein, AH, Cuchel, M et al. (1995) Impact of age on the metabolism of VLDL, IDL, and LDL apolipoprotein B-100 in men. J Lipid Res 36, 11551167.
7. Wang, DQ-H (2002) Aging per se is an independent risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation in gallstone susceptible mice. J Lipid Res 43, 19501959.
8. Hopkins, MJ & Macfarlane, GT (2002) Changes in predominant bacterial populations in human faeces with age and with Clostridium difficile infection. J Med Microbiol 51, 448454.
9. Guo, Z, Liu, XM, Zhang, QX et al. (2011) Influence of consumption of probiotics on the plasma lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21, 844850.
10. Robinson, JG, Smith, B, Maheshwari, N et al. (2005) Pleiotropic effects of statins: benefit beyond cholesterol reduction?: a meta-regression analysis. J Amer Coll Cardiol 46, 18551862.
11. Mozaffarian, D, Micha, R & Wallace, S (2010) Effects on coronary heart disease of increasing polyunsaturated fat in place of saturated fat: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med 7, e1000252.
12. Lin, DS & Connor, WE (1980) The long term effects of dietary cholesterol upon the plasma lipids, lipoproteins, cholesterol absorption, and the sterol balance in man: the demonstration of feedback inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis and increased bile acid excretion. J Lipid Res 21, 10421052.
13. Beserra, BT, Fernandes, R, do Rosario, VA et al. (2015) A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prebiotics and synbiotics effects on glycaemia, insulin concentrations and lipid parameters in adult patients with overweight or obesity. Clin Nutr 34, 845858.
14. Mc Auley, MT, Proctor, CJ, Corfe, BM et al. (2013) Nutrition research and the impact of computational systems biology. J Comput Sci Syst Biol 6, 271285.
15. Auffray, C & Hood, L (2012) Editorial: systems biology and personalized medicine – the future is now. Biotechnol J 7, 938939.
16. Kitano, H (2002) Computational systems biology. Nature 420, 206210.
17. Patti, ME & Kahn, BB (2004) Nutrient sensor links obesity with diabetes risk. Nat Med 10, 10491050.
18. de Luca, C & Olefsky, JM (2008) Inflammation and insulin resistance. FEBS Lett 582, 97105.
19. Gianchandani, EP, Brautigan, DL & Papin, JA (2006) Systems analyses characterize integrated functions of biochemical networks. Trends Biochem Sci 31, 284291.
20. Lamb, RF (2012) Negative feedback loops: nutrient starvation employs a new tr(IKK) to inhibit PI3K. Mol Cell 45, 705706.
21. Huang, Y, He, S, Li, JZ et al. (2010) A feed-forward loop amplifies nutritional regulation of PNPLA3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107, 78927897.
22. Pappu, AS, Steiner, RD, Connor, SL et al. (2002) Feedback inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in patients with Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome as demonstrated by urinary mevalonate excretion. J Lipid Res 43, 16611669.
23. Henderson, L, Gregory, J, Irving, K et al. (2003) The National Diet & Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years. London: Office for National Statistics.
24. Iqbal, J & Hussain, MM (2009) Intestinal lipid absorption. Amer J Physiol – Endocrinol Metab 296, E1183E1194.
25. Betters, JL & Yu, L (2010) NPC1L1 and cholesterol transport. FEBS Lett 584, 27402747.
26. Ikeda, I, Matsuoka, R, Hamada, T et al. (2002) Cholesterol esterase accelerates intestinal cholesterol absorption. Biochim Biophys Acta – Gen Subj 1571, 3444.
27. Davis, HR Jr, Zhu, LJ, Hoos, LM et al. (2004) Niemann–Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) is the intestinal phytosterol and cholesterol transporter and a key modulator of whole-body cholesterol homeostasis. J Biol Chem 279, 3358633592.
28. Yu, X-H, Qian, K, Jiang, N et al. (2014) ABCG5/ABCG8 in cholesterol excretion and atherosclerosis. Clin Chim Acta 428, 8288.
29. Chang, T-Y, Li, B-L, Chang, CCY et al. (2009) Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferases. Am J Physiol – Endocrinol Metab 297, E1E9.
30. Atzel, A & Wetterau, JR (1993) Mechanism of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein catalyzed lipid transport. Biochemistry 32, 1044410450.
31. Van Dyck, F, Braem, CV, Chen, Z et al. (2007) Loss of the PlagL2 transcription factor affects lacteal uptake of chylomicrons. Cell Metab 6, 406413.
32. Kersten, S (2014) Physiological regulation of lipoprotein lipase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1841, 919933.
33. Olivecrona, G & Beisiegel, U (1997) Lipid binding of apolipoprotein CII is required for stimulation of lipoprotein lipase activity against apolipoprotein CII–deficient chylomicrons. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 17, 15451549.
34. Cooper, AD (1997) Hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants. J Lipid Res 38, 21732192.
35. Bloch, K (1965) The biological synthesis of cholesterol. Science 150, 1928.
36. Renfurm, LN, Bandsma, RHJ, Verkade, HJ et al. (2004) Cholesterol synthesis and de novo Lipogenesis in premature infants determined by mass isotopomer distribution analysis. Pediatr Res 56, 602607.
37. Jones, PJ & Schoeller, DA (1990) Evidence for diurnal periodicity in human cholesterol synthesis. J Lipid Res 31, 667673.
38. Parker, TS, McNamara, DJ, Brown, C et al. (1982) Mevalonic acid in human plasma: relationship of concentration and circadian rhythm to cholesterol synthesis rates in man. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79, 30373041.
39. Sirtori, CR (2014) The pharmacology of statins. Pharmacol Res 88, 311.
40. Hoshino, T, Chiba, A & Abe, N (2012) Lanosterol biosynthesis: the critical role of the methyl-29 group of 2,3-oxidosqualene for the correct folding of this substrate and for the construction of the five-membered D ring. Chemistry 18, 1310813116.
41. Luu, W, Hart-Smith, G, Sharpe, LJ et al. (2015) The terminal enzymes of cholesterol synthesis, DHCR24 and DHCR7, interact physically and functionally. J Lipid Res 56, 888897.
42. Risley, JM (2002) Cholesterol biosynthesis: lanosterol to cholesterol. J Chem Educ 79, 377.
43. Havel, RJ (1984) The formation of LDL: mechanisms and regulation. J Lipid Res 25, 15701576.
44. Spady, DK, Turley, SD & Dietschy, JM (1985) Receptor-independent low density lipoprotein transport in the rat in vivo. Quantitation, characterization, and metabolic consequences. J Clin Invest 76, 11131122.
45. Veniant, MM, Zlot, CH, Walzem, RL et al. (1998) Lipoprotein clearance mechanisms in LDL receptor-deficient ‘Apo-B48-only’ and ‘Apo-B100-only’ mice. J Clin Invest 102, 15591568.
46. Shen, L, Peng, H, Peng, R et al. (2015) Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice promotes reverse cholesterol transport and regression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 239, 557565.
47. He, Y, Zhang, L, Li, Z et al. (2015) RIP140 triggers foam-cell formation by repressing ABCA1/G1 expression and cholesterol efflux via liver X receptor. FEBS Lett 589, 455460.
48. Ji, A, Meyer, JM, Cai, L et al. (2011) Scavenger receptor SR-BI in macrophage lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis 217, 106112.
49. Gillotte, KL, Davidson, WS, Lund-Katz, S et al. (1998) Removal of cellular cholesterol by pre-beta-HDL involves plasma membrane microsolubilization. J Lipid Res 39, 19181928.
50. Sorci-Thomas, M, Babiak, J & Rudel, LL (1990) Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) catalyzes transacylation of intact cholesteryl esters. Evidence for the partial reversal of the forward LCAT reaction. J Biol Chem 265, 26652670.
51. Zhang, M, Charles, R, Tong, H et al. (2015) HDL surface lipids mediate CETP binding as revealed by electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulation. Sci Rep 5, 8741.
52. Brown, MS & Goldstein, JL (1984) How LDL receptors influence cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Sci Am 251, 5866.
53. Repa, JJ, Berge, KE, Pomajzl, C et al. (2002) Regulation of ATP-binding cassette sterol transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 by the liver X receptors α and β. J Biol Chem 277, 1879318800.
54. Aldini, R, Montagnani, M, Roda, A et al. (1996) Intestinal absorption of bile acids in the rabbit: different transport rates in jejunum and ileum. Gastroenterology 110, 459468.
55. Batta, AK, Salen, G, Rapole, KR et al. (1999) Highly simplified method for gas-liquid chromatographic quantitation of bile acids and sterols in human stool. J Lipid Res 40, 11481154.
56. Gérard, P (2014) Metabolism of cholesterol and bile acids by the gut microbiota. Pathogens 3, 1424.
57. Oner, O, Aslim, B & Aydas, SB (2014) Mechanisms of cholesterol-lowering effects of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains as potential probiotics with their bsh gene analysis. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 24, 1218.
58. Ericsson, S, Eriksson, M, Vitols, S et al. (1991) Influence of age on the metabolism of plasma low density lipoproteins in healthy males. J Clin Investig 87, 591596.
59. Abbott, RD, Garrison, RJ, Wilson, PW et al. (1983) Joint distribution of lipoprotein cholesterol classes. The Framingham study. Arteriosclerosis 3, 260272.
60. Bosner, MS, Lange, LG, Stenson, WF et al. (1999) Percent cholesterol absorption in normal women and men quantified with dual stable isotopic tracers and negative ion mass spectrometry. J Lipid Res 40, 302308.
61. Duan, LP, Wang, HH, Ohashi, A et al. (2006) Role of intestinal sterol transporters Abcg5, Abcg8, and Npc1l1 in cholesterol absorption in mice: gender and age effects. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290, G269276.
62. Bertolotti, M, Gabbi, C, Anzivino, C et al. (2007) Age-related changes in bile acid synthesis and hepatic nuclear receptor expression. Eur J Clin Invest 37, 501508.
63. Bertolotti, M, Abate, N, Bertolotti, S et al. (1993) Effect of aging on cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylation in humans. J Lipid Res 34, 10011007.
64. Einarsson, K, Nilsell, K, Leijd, B et al. (1985) Influence of age on secretion of cholesterol and synthesis of bile acids by the liver. N Engl J Med 313, 277282.
65. Tanaka, H, Doesburg, K, Iwasaki, T et al. (1999) Screening of lactic acid bacteria for bile salt hydrolase activity. J Dairy Sci 82, 25302535.
66. Woodmansey, EJ, McMurdo, MET, Macfarlane, GT et al. (2004) Comparison of compositions and metabolic activities of fecal microbiotas in young adults and in antibiotic-treated and non-antibiotic-treated elderly subjects. Appl Environ Microbiol 70, 61136122.
67. Lagace, TA, Curtis, DE, Garuti, R et al. (2006) Secreted PCSK9 decreases the number of LDL receptors in hepatocytes and in livers of parabiotic mice. J Clin Investig 116, 29953005.
68. Cui, Q, Ju, X, Yang, T et al. (2010) Serum PCSK9 is associated with multiple metabolic factors in a large Han Chinese population. Atherosclerosis 213, 632636.
69. Herron, KL, Vega-Lopez, S, Conde, K et al. (2003) Men classified as hypo- or hyperresponders to dietary cholesterol feeding exhibit differences in lipoprotein metabolism. J Nutr 133, 10361042.
70. Quintao, E, Grundy, SM & Ahrens, EH Jr (1971) Effects of dietary cholesterol on the regulation of total body cholesterol in man. J Lipid Res 12, 233247.
71. Edington, J, Geekie, M, Carter, R et al. (1987) Effect of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentration in subjects following reduced fat, high fibre diet. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 294, 333336.
72. Mustad, VA, Etherton, TD, Cooper, AD et al. (1997) Reducing saturated fat intake is associated with increased levels of LDL receptors on mononuclear cells in healthy men and women. J Lipid Res 38, 459468.
73. Glatz, JFC & Katan, MB (1993) Dietary saturated fatty acids increase cholesterol synthesis and fecal steroid excretion in healthy men and women. Eur J Clin Invest 23, 648655.
74. Jones, PJ, Lichtenstein, AH, Schaefer, EJ et al. (1994) Effect of dietary fat selection on plasma cholesterol synthesis in older, moderately hypercholesterolemic humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 14, 542548.
75. Jansen, S, López-Miranda, J, Castro, P et al. (2000) Low-fat and high–monounsaturated fatty acid diets decrease plasma cholesterol ester transfer protein concentrations in young, healthy, normolipemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 3641.
76. Berard, AM, Dabadie, H, Palos-Pinto, A et al. (2004) Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 881887.
77. Sjogren, M & Blennow, K (2005) The link between cholesterol and Alzheimer's disease. World J Biol Psychiatry 6, 8597.
78. Kuzu, OF, Noory, MA & Robertson, GP (2016) The role of cholesterol in cancer. Cancer Res 76, 20632070.
79. Sharrett, AR, Ballantyne, CM, Coady, SA et al. (2001) Coronary heart disease prediction from lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglycerides, lipoprotein(a), apolipoproteins A-I and B, and HDL density subfractions: the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. Circulation 104, 11081113.
80. Lewington, S, Whitlock, G, Clarke, R et al. (2007) Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55 000 vascular deaths. Lancet 370, 18291839.
81. Ravnskov, U, Diamond, DM, Hama, R et al. (2016) Lack of an association or an inverse association between low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review. BMJ Open
82. Lv, Y-B, Yin, Z-X, Chei, C-L et al. (2015) Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was inversely associated with 3-year all-cause mortality among Chinese oldest old: data from the Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey. Atherosclerosis 239, 137142.
83. Takata, Y, Ansai, T, Soh, I et al. (2014) Serum total cholesterol concentration and 10-year mortality in an 85-year-old population. Clin Intervent Aging 9, 293300.
84. Cannon, CP, Blazing, MA, Giugliano, RP et al. (2015) Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 372, 23872397.
85. Ras, RT, Geleijnse, JM & Trautwein, EA (2014) LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols and stanols across different dose ranges: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled studies. Br J Nutr 112, 214219.
86. Weng, TC, Yang, YHK, Lin, SJ et al. (2010) A systematic review and meta-analysis on the therapeutic equivalence of statins. J Clin Pharm Ther 35, 139151.
87. Law, MR, Wald, NJ & Rudnicka, AR (2003) Quantifying effect of statins on low density lipoprotein cholesterol, ischaemic heart disease, and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 326, 1423.
88. Pedersen, TR, Faergeman, O, Kastelein, JP et al. (2005) High-dose atorvastatin vs usual-dose simvastatin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction: the ideal study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 294, 24372445.
89. Cannon, CP, Steinberg, BA, Murphy, SA et al. (2006) Meta-analysis of cardiovascular outcomes trials comparing intensive versus moderate statin therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 48, 438445.
90. Ridker, PM, Cannon, CP, Morrow, D et al. (2005) C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy. N Engl J Med 352, 2028.
91. Berry, EM, Eisenberg, S, Haratz, D et al. (1991) Effects of diets rich in monounsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipoproteins -- the Jerusalem Nutrition Study: high MUFAs vs high PUFAs. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 899907.
92. Katan, MB, Grundy, SM, Jones, P et al. (2003) Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels. Mayo Clin Proc 78, 965978.
93. IAS (2013) An Int Atherosclerosis Society Position Paper: Global Recommendations for the Management of Dyslipidemia. Full Report.
94. Brown, L, Rosner, B, Willett, WW et al. (1999) Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 3042.
95. Weickert, MO & Pfeiffer, AFH (2008) Metabolic effects of dietary fiber consumption and prevention of diabetes. J Nutr 138, 439442.
96. Kristensen, M, Jensen, MG, Aarestrup, J et al. (2012) Flaxseed dietary fibers lower cholesterol and increase fecal fat excretion, but magnitude of effect depend on food type. Nutr Metab 9, 8.
97. Slavin, J (2013) Fiber and prebiotics: mechanisms and health benefits. Nutrients 5, 1417.
98. Gibson, GR, Beatty, ER, Wang, X et al. (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology 108, 975982.
99. David, LA, Maurice, CF, Carmody, RN et al. (2014) Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome. Nature 505, 559563.
100. Everard, A, Lazarevic, V, Gaia, N et al. (2014) Microbiome of prebiotic-treated mice reveals novel targets involved in host response during obesity. ISME J 8, 21162130.
101. Cénit, MC, Matzaraki, V, Tigchelaar, EF et al. (2014) Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta – Mol Basis Dis 1842, 19811992.
102. Kinross, JM, Darzi, AW & Nicholson, JK (2011) Gut microbiome-host interactions in health and disease. Genome Med 3, 112.
103. Claesson, MJ, Jeffery, IB, Conde, S et al. (2012) Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. Nature 488, 178184.
104. O'Sullivan, O, Coakley, M, Lakshminarayanan, B et al. (2013) Alterations in intestinal microbiota of elderly Irish subjects post-antibiotic therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother 68, 214221.
105. Patel, PJ, Singh, SK, Panaich, S et al. (2014) The aging gut and the role of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics: a review. J Clin Gerontol Geriatr 5, 36.
106. Moroti, C, Souza Magri, LF, de Rezende Costa, M et al. (2012) Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lipids Health Dis 11, 18.
107. Bernini, LJ, Simão, ANC, Alfieri, DF et al. (2016) Beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile and cytokines in patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial. Effects of probiotics on metabolic syndrome. Nutrition 32, 716719.
108. Ishimwe, N, Daliri, EB, Lee, BH et al. (2015) The perspective on cholesterol-lowering mechanisms of probiotics. Mol Nutr Food Res 59, 94105.
109. Tsai, C-C, Lin, P-P, Hsieh, Y-M et al. (2014) Cholesterol-lowering potentials of lactic acid bacteria based on bile-salt hydrolase activity and effect of potent strains on cholesterol metabolism in vitro and in vivo . Sci World J 2014, 10.
110. Brashears, MM, Gilliland, SE & Buck, LM (1998) Bile salt deconjugation and cholesterol removal from media by Lactobacillus casei. J Dairy Sci 81, 21032110.
111. Mc Auley, MT & Mooney, KM (2014) Lipid metabolism and hormonal interactions: impact on cardiovascular disease and healthy aging. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab 9, 357367.
112. Mooney, KM & Mc Auley, MT (2015) Cardiovascular disease and healthy ageing. J Integr Cardiol 1, 7678.
113. Mc Auley, MT, Choi, H, Mooney, K et al. (2015) systems biology and synthetic biology: a new epoch for toxicology research. Adv Toxicol 2015, 14.
114. Mooney, KM, Morgan, AE & Mc Auley, MT (2016) Aging and computational systems biology. Wiley Interdiscip Rev: Syst Biol Med 8, 123139.
115. Enrique Salcedo-Sora, J & Mc Auley, MT (2016) A mathematical model of microbial folate biosynthesis and utilisation: implications for antifolate development. Mol Biosyst 12, 923933.
116. Kilner, J, Corfe, BM, McAuley, MT et al. (2016) A deterministic oscillatory model of microtubule growth and shrinkage for differential actions of short chain fatty acids. Mol Biosyst 12, 93101.
117. Mc Auley, MT, Kenny, RA, Kirkwood, TB et al. (2009) A mathematical model of aging-related and cortisol induced hippocampal dysfunction. BMC Neurosci 10, 26.
118. Mc Auley, MT, Mooney, KM, Angell, PJ et al. (2015) Mathematical modelling of metabolic regulation in aging. Metabolites 5, 232251.
119. Mc Auley, MT & Mooney, KM (2015) Computationally modeling lipid metabolism and aging: a mini-review. Comput Struc Biotechnol J 13, 3846.
120. Mc Auley, M, Jones, J, Wilkinson, D et al. (2005) Modelling lipid metabolism to improve healthy ageing. BMC Bioinformatics 6, 11.
121. Mc Auley, MM, Wilkinson, DJ, Jones, JJ et al. (2012) A whole-body mathematical model of cholesterol metabolism and its age-associated dysregulation. BMC Syst Biol 6, 130.
122. Mishra, S, Somvanshi, PR & Venkatesh, KV (2014) Control of cholesterol homeostasis by entero-hepatic bile transport – the role of feedback mechanisms. RSC Adv 4, 5896458975.
123. Morgan, AE, Mooney, KM, Wilkinson, SJ et al. (2016) Mathematically modelling the dynamics of cholesterol metabolism and ageing. Biosystems 145, 1932.
124. Van de Wiele, T, Van den Abbeele, P, Ossieur, W et al. (2015) The simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®). In The Impact of Food Bio-Actives on Gut Health, pp. 305317 [Verhoeckx, K, Cotter, P and Lopez-Exposito, I et al. editors] Heidelberg: Springer International Publishing.
125. Nollet, LJA, Pereira, DI & Verstraete, W (1999) Effect of a probiotic bile salt hydrolytic Lactobacillus reuteri on the human gastrointestinal microbiota as simulated in the SHIME Reactor System. Microb Ecol Health Dis 11, 1321.
126. Molly, K, Vande Woestyne, M & Verstraete, W (1993) Development of a 5-step multi-chamber reactor as a simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39, 254258.
127. De Smet, I, De Boever, P & Verstraete, W (1998) Cholesterol lowering in pigs through enhanced bacterial bile salt hydrolase activity. Br J Nutr 79, 185194.
128. Rodes, L, Coussa-Charley, M, Marinescu, D et al. (2013) Design of a novel gut bacterial adhesion model for probiotic applications. Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 41, 116124.
129. Minekus, M (2015) The TNO gastro-intestinal model (TIM). In The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health: In Vitro and Ex Vivo Models, pp. 3746 [Verhoeckx, K, Cotter, P, López-Expósito, I, Kleiveland, C, Lea, T, Mackie, A, Requena, T, Swiatecka, D and Wichers, H, editors]. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
130. Christley, S, Cockrell, C & An, G (2015) Computational studies of the intestinal host-microbiota interactome. Computation 3, 2.
131. de Wiele, TV, Boon, N, Possemiers, S et al. (2004) Prebiotic effects of chicory inulin in the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 51, 143153.
132. Clio-Infra (2016) Life expectancy at birth (total).
133. UNSD (2016) Population by age, sex and urban/rural residence.
134. Townsend, N, Bhatnagar, P, Wilkins, E et al. (2015) Cardiovascular Disease Statistics, 2015. London: British Heart Foundation.
135. Mc Auley, MT & Mooney, KM (2015) Computational systems biology for aging research. Interdiscip Top Gerontol 40, 3548.


Investigating cholesterol metabolism and ageing using a systems biology approach

  • A. E. Morgan (a1), K. M. Mooney (a2), S. J. Wilkinson (a1), N. A. Pickles (a3) and M. T. Mc Auley (a1)...


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed