Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

How active are we? Levels of routine physical activity in children and adults

  • M. B. E. Livingstone (a1), P. J. Robson (a1), J. M. W. Wallace (a1) and M. C. McKinley (a1)

Abstract

The accurate measurement of physical activity is fraught with problems in adults, but more especially in children because they have more complex and multi-dimensional activity patterns. In addition, the results of different studies are often difficult to interpret and compare, because of the diversity of methodological approaches, differences in data analysis and reporting, and the adoption of varying definitions of what constitutes an appropriate level of activity. Furthermore, inactivity is seldom quantified directly. Although there exists an extensive literature documenting the health benefits of regular physical activity in adults, activity-health relationships in children are not clear-cut. Current recommendations reinforce the concept of health-related activity, accumulating 30 min moderate-intensity exercise on at least 5 d/week (adults) and 1 h moderate-intensity exercise/d (children). Evidence suggests a high prevalence of inactivity in adults, but whether or not inactivity is increasing cannot be assessed currently. Similarly, no definite conclusions are justified about either the levels of physical activity of children, or whether these are sufficient to maintain and promote health. Data to support the belief that activity levels in childhood track into adulthood are weak. Inactivity is associated with an increased risk of weight gain and obesity, but causality remains to be established. In children there is strong evidence to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the prevalence and incidence of obesity and time spent viewing television. Future research should focus on refining methodology for physical activity assessment to make it more sensitive to the different dimensions and contexts of activity in different age-groups.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      How active are we? Levels of routine physical activity in children and adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      How active are we? Levels of routine physical activity in children and adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      How active are we? Levels of routine physical activity in children and adults
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr M. B. E. Livingstone, fax +44 28 7032 4965, mail, mbe.livingstone@ulster.ac.uk

References

Hide All
Aaron, DJ, Dearwater, SR & Kriska, AM (1992) Are activity and/or fitness related to weight gain in adolescents? Data from the AIC Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, S124.
Ainsworth, BE (2000) Challenges in measuring physical activity in women. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 28, 9396.
Albanes, D, Blair, A & Taylor, PR (1989) Physical activity and risk of cancer in the NHANES I population. American Journal of Public Health 79, 744750.
Alpert, BS & Wilmore, JH (1994) Physical activity and blood pressure in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 361380.
American College of Sports Medicine (1978) The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 10, viix.
American College of Sports Medicine (1990) The recommended quality and quantity of exercise for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 22, 265274.
Andersen, LB & Haraldsdottir, J (1993) Tracking of cardiovascular disease risk factors including maximal oxygen uptake and physical activity from late teenage to adulthood. An 8-year follow-up study. Journal of International Medicine 234, 309315.
Andersen, LB, Henckel, P & Saltin, B (1989) Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in 16–19-year-old teenagers. Journal of International Medicine 225, 157163.
Andersen, RE, Crespo, CJ, Bartlett, SJ, Cheskin, LJ & Pratt, M (1998) Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children. Journal of the American Medical Association 279, 938942.
Armstrong, N (1998) Young people's physical activity patterns as assessed by heart rate monitoring. Journal of Sports Science 16, S9S16.
Armstrong, N & Bray, S (1991) Physical activity patterns defined by continuous heart rate monitoring. Archives of Disease in Childhood 66, 245247.
Armstrong, N & Simons-Morton, B (1994) Physical activity and blood lipids in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 381405.
Armstrong, N & Van Mechelen, W (1998) Are young people fit and active? In Young and Active, pp. 6997 [Biddle, SJH, Sallis, JF and Cavill, NC, editors]. London: Health Education Authority.
Armstrong, N & Welsman, JR (1997) Young People and Physical Activity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Arroll, B & Beaglehole, R (1992) Does physical activity lower blood pressure? A critical review of the clinical trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 45, 439447.
Bailey, DA, Faulkner, RA & McKay, HA (1996) Growth, physical activity and bone mineral acquisition. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 24, 233266.
Bailey, DA & Martin, AD (1994) Physical activity and skeletal health in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 330347.
Bailey, RC, Olson, J, Pepper, SL, Porszasz, J, Barstow, TJ & Cooper, DM (1995) The level and tempo of children's physical activities: an observational study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27, 10331041.
Baranowski, T, Bouchard, C, Bar-Or, O, Bricker, T, Heath, G, Kimm, SYS, Malina, R, Obarzanek, E, Pate, R, Strong, WB, Truman, B & Washington, R (1992) Assessment, prevalence, and cardiovascular benefits of physical activity and fitness in youth. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, Suppl., S237S247.
Baranowski, T, Hooks, P, Tsong, Y, Cieslik, C & Nader, PR (1987) Aerobic physical activity among third- to sixth-grade children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 8, 203206.
Baranowski, T & Simons-Morton, BG (1991) Dietary and physical activity assessment in school-aged children: measurement issues. Journal of School Health 61, 195197.
Barnard, RJ & Wen, SJ (1994) Exercise and diet in the prevention and control of the metabolic syndrome. Sports Medicine 18, 218228.
Bar-Or, O (1994) Childhood and adolescent physical activity and fitness and adult risk profile. In Health and Fitness through Physical Education, 931942 [Pate, RR and Hohn, RC, editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Bar-Or, O & Baranowski, T (1994) Physical activity, adiposity and obesity among adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 348360.
Berlin, JA & Colditz, GA (1990) A meta-analysis of physical activity in the prevention of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Epidemiology 132, 612627.
Beunen, GP, Malina, RM, Renson, R, Simons, J, Ostyn, M & Lefevre, J (1992) Physical activity and growth, maturation and performance: A longitudinal study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 24, 576585.
Biddle, SJH, Sallis, JF & Cavill, NA (editors) (1998) Young and Active? Young People and Health Enhancing Physical Activity: Evidence and Implications. London: Health Education Authority.
Blair, SN (1992) Are American children and youth fit? The need for better data. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 63, 120123.
Blair, SN Clark, DG, Cureton, KJ & Powell, KE (1989) Exercise and fitness in childhood: implications for a lifetime of health. In Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. pp. 401430 [Gisolfi, CV and Lamb, DR, editors]. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Blair, SN & Connelly, JC (1996) How much physical activity should we do? The case for moderate amounts and intensities of physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 67, 193205.
Blair, SN, Kohl, HW & Barlow, CE (1993) Physical activity, physical fitness, and all-cause mortality in women: do women need to be active? Journal of the American College of Nutrition 12, 368371.
Blair, SN, Kohl, HW, Gordon, NF & Paffenbarger, RS (1992) How much physical activity is good for health?. Annual Review of Public Health 13, 99126.
Boreham, CA, Twisk, J, Savage, MJ, Cran, GW & Strain, JJ (1997) Physical activity, sports participation, and risk factors in adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29, 788793.
Borer, KT (1995) The effects of exercise on growth. Sports Medicine 20, 375397.
Bouten, CVC, Verboeket-Van de Venne, WPHG, Westerterp, KR, Verduin, M & Janssen, JD (1996) Daily physical activity assessment: comparison between movement registration and doubly labeled water. Journal of Applied Physiology 81, 10191026.
British Heart Foundation (2000) Couch Kids – The Growing Epidemic. London: British Heart Foundation.
Cale, L & Almond, L (1992 a) Children's activity levels: a review of studies conducted on British children. Physical Education Review 15, 111118.
Cale, L & Almond, L (1992 b) Physical activity levels of young children: a review of the evidence. Health Education Journal 51, 9499.
Cale, L & Almond, L (1992 c) Physical activity levels of secondaryaged children: a review. Health Education Journal 51, 192197.
Cale, L & Harris, J (1993) Exercise recommendations for children and young people. Physical Education Review 16, 89102.
Calfas, KJ & Taylor, C (1994) Effects of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 406423.
Canada Fitness Survey (1981) Canadian Youth and Physical Activity. Ottawa: Canada Fitness Survey.
Caspersen, CJ (1989) Physical activity epidemiology: concepts, methods, and applications to exercise science. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 17, 423473.
Caspersen, CJ & Merritt, RK (1995) Physical activity trends among 26 states, 1986–1990. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27, 713720.
Caspersen, CJ, Merritt, RK & Stephens, T (1994) International activity patterns: a methodological perspective. In Advances in Exercise Adherence, pp 73110 [Dishman, RK, editor]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Caspersen, CJ, Nixon, PA & DuRant, RH (1998) Physical activity epidemiology applied to children and adolescents. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 26, 341403.
Caspersen, CJ, Pereira, MA & Curran, KM (2000) Changes in physical activity patterns in the United States, by sex and cross-sectional age. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 16011609.
Caspersen, CJ, Powell, KE & Christenson, GM (1985) Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports 100, 126131.
Cauley, JA, LaPorte, RE, Sandler, RB, Schramm, MM & Kriska, AM (1987) Comparison of methods to measure physical activity in postmenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 1422.
Centers for Disease Control (1995) Assessing Health Risks in America. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) at a Glance. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Chilibeck, PD, Sale, DG & Webber, CE (1995) Exercise and bone mineral density. Sports Medicine 19, 103122.
Ching, PLYH, Willett, WC, Rimm, EB, Colditz, GA, Gortmaker, SL & Stampfer, MJ (1996) Activity level and risk of overweight in male health professionals. American Journal of Public Health 86, 2530.
Chinn, S & Rona, RJ (2001) Prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity in three cross sectional studies in British children 1974–94. British Medical Journal 322, 2426.
Coakley, EH, Rimm, EB, Colditz, G, Kawachi, I & Willett, W (1998) Predictors of weight change in men: Results from The Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. International Journal of Obesity 22, 8996.
Corbin, CB & Pangrazi, RP (1992) Are American children and youth fit?. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 63, 96106.
Crespo, CJ, Ainsworth, BE, Keteyian, SJ, Heath, GW & Smit, E (1999) Prevalence of physical inactivity and its relation to social class in US adults: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, 18211827.
Crespo, CJ, Keteyian, SJ, Heath, GW & Sempos, CT (1996) Leisure-time physical activity among US adults. Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Archives of Internal Medicine 156, 9398.
Crespo, CJ, Smit, E, Troiano, RP, Bartlett, SJ, Macera, CA & Andersen, RE (2001) Television watching, energy intake, and obesity in US children: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 155, 360365.
Cummings, SR, Kelsey, JL, Nevitt, MC & O'Dowd, KJ (1985) Epidemiology of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Epidemiological Reviews 7, 178208.
Danforth, JS, Allen, KD, Fitterling, JM, Danforth, JA, Farrar, D, Brown, M & Drabman, RS (1990) Exercise as a treatment for hypertension in low socioeconomic status black children. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology 58, 237239.
Dannenberg, AL, Keller, JB, Wilson, PWF & Castelli, WP (1989) Leisure time physical activity in the Framingham offspring study. Description, seasonal variation, and risk factor correlates. American Journal of Epidemiology 129, 7688.
Davies, PSW, Gregory, J & White, A (1995) Physical activity and body fatness in pre–school children. International Journal of Obesity 19, 610.
de Almeida, MDV, Graca, P, Afonso, C, D'Amicis, A, Lappalainen, R & Damkjaer, S (1999) Physical activity levels and body weight in a nationally representative sample in the European Union. Public Health Nutrition 2, 105113.
DeBusk, RF, Stenestrand, U, Sheehan, M & Haskell, WL (1990) Training effects of long versus short bouts of exercise in healthy subjects. American Journal of Cardiology 65, 10101013.
Department of Health and Social Services (1996) Strategy Statement on Physical Activity. London: Department of Health.
Dietz, WH (1996) The role of lifestyle in health: the epidemiology and consequences of inactivity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 55, 829840.
Dietz, WH, Bandini, LG, Morelli, JA, Peers, KF & Ching, PLYH (1994) Effect of sedentary activities on resting metabolic rate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, 556559.
Dietz, WH & Gortmaker, SL (1984) Factors within the physical environment associated with childhood obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 619624.
Dietz, WH & Gortmaker, SL (1985) Do we fatten our children at the TV set? Obesity and television viewing in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 75, 807812.
DiPietro, L (1995) Physical activity, body weight, and adiposity: an epidemiologic perspective. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 23, 275303.
DiPietro, L, Kohl, HW III, Barlow, CE & Blair, SN (1998) Improvements in cardiovascular fitness attenuate age-related weight gain in healthy men and women: The Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. International Journal of Obesity 22, 5562.
DiPietro, L, Williamson, DF, Caspersen, CJ & Eaker, E (1993) The descriptive epidemiology of selected physical activities and body weight among adults trying to lose weight: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. International Journal of Obesity 17, 6976.
DuRant, RH, Baranowski, T, Johnson, M & Thompson, WO (1994) The relationship among television watching, physical activity, and body composition of young children. Pediatrics 94, 449455.
Ebisu, T (1985) Splitting the distance of endurance running: on cardiovascular endurance and blood lipids. Japanese Journal of Physical Education 30, 3743.
Ekeland, U, Sjöström, M, Yngve, A & Nilsson, A (2000) Total daily energy expenditure and pattern of physical activity measured by minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring in 14–15 year old Swedish adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 195202.
Ekelund, U, Sjöström, M, Yngve, A, Poortvliet, E, Nilsson, A, Froberg, K, Wedderkopp, N & Westerterp, K (2001) Physical activity assessed by activity monitor and doubly labeled water in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33, 275281.
Engstom, L-M (1986) The process of socialisation into keep-fit activities. Scandinavian Journal of Sports Science 8, 8997.
Epstein, LH, Paluch, RA, Gordy, CC & Dorn, J (2000) Decreasing sedentary behaviors in treating pediatric obesity. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 154, 220226.
Epstein, LH, Valoski, AM, Vara, LS, McCurley, J, Wisniewski, L, Kalarchian, MA, Klein, KR & Shrager, LR (1995) Effects of decreasing sedentary behavior and increasing activity on weight change in obese children. Health Psychology 14, 109115.
Escobedo, LG, Marcus, SE, Holtzman, D & Giovino, GA (1993) Sports participation, age at smoking initiation, and risk of smoking among US high school students. Journal of the American Medical Association 269, 13911395.
Eston, RG, Rowlands, AV & Ingledew, DK (1998) Validity of heart rate, pedometry, and accelerometry for predicting the energy cost of children's activities. Journal of Applied Physiology 84, 362371.
Fentem, P & Walker, A (1995) Setting targets for England: Challenging, measurable and achievable. In Moving On: International Perspectives on Promoting Physical Activity pp. 5876 [Killoran, AJ, Fentem, P and Caspersen, C, editors]. London: Health Education Authority.
Fogelholm, M, Mannisto, S, Vartiainen, E & Pietinen, P (1996) Determinants of energy balance and overweight in Finland 1982 and 1992. International Journal of Obesity 20, 10971104.
Folsom, AR, Caspersen, CJ, Taylor, HL, Jacobs, DR, Luepker, RV, Gomez-Marin, O & Gillum, RF (1985) Leisure time physical activity and its relationship to coronary risk factors in a population-based sample. The Minnesota Heart Survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 121, 570579.
Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University (1985) Energy and Protein Requirements. WHO Technical Report Series no. 724 Geneva: WHO.
Frandin, K, Mellstrom, D, Sundh, V & Grimby, G (1995) A lifespan perspective on patterns of physical activity and functional performance at the age of 76. Gerontology 41, 109120.
French, SA, Jeffery, RW, Forster, JL, McGovern, PG, Kelder, SH & Baxter, JE (1994) Predictors of weight change over two years among a population of working adults: the Healthy Worker Project. International Journal of Obesity 18, 145154.
Gilbey, H & Gilbey, M (1995) The physical activity of Singapore primary school children as estimated by heart rate monitoring. Pediatric Exercise Science 7, 2635.
Gilliam, TB, Freedson, PS, Geenen, DL & Shahraray, B (1981) Physical activity patterns determined by heart rate monitoring in 6–7 year-old children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 13, 6567.
Goran, MI, Hunter, G, Nagy, TR & Johnson, R (1997) Physical activity related energy expenditure and fat mass in young children. International Journal of Obesity 21, 171178.
Gordon, J & Grant, G (1997) How We Feel. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Gortmaker, SL, Must, A, Sobol, AM, Peterson, K, Colditz, GA & Dietz, WH (1996) Television viewing as a cause of increasing obesity among children in the United States, 1986–1990. Archives of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine 150, 356362.
Gregory, J & Lowe, S (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years. London: The Stationery Office.
Gruber, JJ (1986) Physical activity and self-esteem development in children: a meta-analysis. In Effects of Physical Activity on Children, pp 330348 [Stull, G and Eckert, H, editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hagberg, JM, Goldring, D, Ehsani, AA, Heath, GW, Hernandez, A, Schechtman, K & Holloszy, JO (1983) Effect of exercise training on the blood pressure and hemodynamic features of hypertensive adolescents. American Journal of Cardiology 52, 763768.
Hansen, HS, Froberg, K, Hyldebrandt, N & Nielsen, JR (1991) A controlled study of eight months of physical training and reduction of blood pressure in children: the Odense schoolchild study. British Medical Journal 303, 682685.
Harter, S (1988) Developmental processes in the construction of the self. In Integrative Processes and Early Socialization: Early to Middle Childhood, pp 4578 [Yawkey, TD and Johnson, JE, editors]. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Haskell, WL (1994) Health consequences of physical activity: understanding and challenges regarding dose-response. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26, 649660.
Health Education Authority (1999) Young People and Health: Health Behaviour in School-aged Children. A Report of the 1997 Findings. London Health Education Authority.
Health Promotion Agency for Northern Ireland (1994) The Northern Ireland Health and Activity Survey: Main Findings. Belfast: H. M. Stationery Office.
Heartbeat Wales (1986) Welsh Youth Health Survey 1986. Heartbeat Report. no. 5. Cardiff: Heartbeat Wales.
Helmrich, SP, Ragland, DR, Leung, RW & Paffenbarger, RS (1991) Physical activity and reduced occurrence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine 325, 147152.
Hernández, B, Gortmaker, SL, Colditz, GA, Peterson, KE, Laird, NM & Parra-Cabrera, S (1999) Association of obesity with physical activity, television programs and other forms of video viewing among children in Mexico city. International Journal of Obesity 23, 845854.
Hopkins, WG, Wilson, NC & Russell, DG (1991) Validation of the physical activity instrument for the Life in New Zealand national survey. American Journal of Epidemiology 133, 7382.
Ingram, DK (2000) Age-related decline in physical activity: generalization to nonhumans. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 16231629.
Jacobs, DR, Ainsworth, BE, Hartman, TL & Leon, AS (1993) A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 8191.
Janz, KF (1994) Validation of the CSA accelerometer for assessing children's physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 26, 369375.
Jebb, SA & Moore, MS (1999) Contribution of a sedentary lifestyle and inactivity to the etiology of overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, Suppl., S534S541.
Jennings, G, Nelson, L, Nestel, P, Esler, M, Korner, P, Burton, D & Bazelmans, J (1986) The effects of changes in physical activity on major cardiovascular risk factors, hemodynamics, sympathetic function, and glucose utilization in man: a controlled study of four levels of activity. Circulation 73, 3040.
Johnson, RK, Russ, J & Goran, MI (1998) Physical activity related energy expenditure in children by doubly labeled water as compared with the Caltrac accelerometer. International Journal of Obesity 22, 10461052.
Jones, DA, Ainsworth, BE, Croft, JB, Macera, CA, Lloyd, EE & Yusuf, HR (1998) Moderate leisure-time physical activity. Who is meeting the public health recommendations? A national crosssectional study. Archives of Family Medicine 7, 285289.
Kann, L, Kinchen, SA & Williams, BI (1998) Youth risk behaviour surveillance – United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report CDC Surveillance Summaries 47, 132.
Kemper, HCG, Nels, J, Verschuur, R & Storm-Van Essen, L (1990) Tracking of health and risk indicators of cardiovascular disease from teenager to adult: Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Preventive Medicine 19, 642655.
Kesaniemi, YA, Danforth, E, Jensen, MD, Kopelman, PG, Lefebvre, P & Reeder, BA (2001) Dose-response issues concerning physical activity and health: an evidence-based symposium. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33 Suppl. 6, S351S358.
King, AJC & Coles, B (1992) The Health of Canada's Youth: Views and Behaviours of 11–13, and 15-Year-olds from 11 Countries. Ottawa: Minister of National Health and Welfare.
Klesges, RC, Klesges, LM, Eck, LH & Shelton, ML (1995) A longitudinal analysis of accelerated weight gain in preschool children. Pediatrics 95, 126130.
Klesges, RC, Klesges, LM, Haddock, CK & Eck, LH (1992) A longitudinal analysis of the impact of dietary intake and physical activity on weight change in adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 818822.
Lee, I, Paffenbarger, RS & Hseih, C (1991) Physical activity and risk of developing colorectal cancer among college alumni. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83, 13241329.
Leon, AS, Connett, J, Jacobs, DR & Rauramaa, R (1987) Leisure-time physical activity levels and risk of coronary heart disease and death. The Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 258, 23882395.
Lichtman, SW, Pisarska, K, Berman, ER, Pestone, M, Dowling, H, Offenbacher, E, Weisel, H, Heshka, S, Matthews, DE & Heymsfield, SB (1992) Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 18931898.
Lissner, L, Heitmann, BL & Bengtsson, C (1997) Low-fat diets may prevent weight gain in sedentary women: prospective observations from the population study of women in Gothenburg, Sweden. Obesity Research 5, 4348.
Livingstone, B (2000) Epidemiology of childhood obesity in Europe. European Journal of Pediatrics 159 Suppl. 1, S14S34.
Livingstone, MBE (1994) Energy expenditure and physical activity in relation to fitness in children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 53, 207221.
Livingstone, MBE (1997) Heart-rate monitoring: the answer for assessing energy expenditure and physical activity in population studies? British Journal of Nutrition 78, 869871.
Livingstone, MBE, Coward, WA, Prentice, AM, Davies, PSW, Strain, JJ, McKenna, PG, Mahoney, CA, White, JA, Stewart, CM & Kerr, M-JJ (1992) Daily energy expenditure in free-living children: comparison of heart rate monitoring with the doubly labeled water ( 2 H 2 18 O) method. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 343352.
Livingstone, MBE, Prentice, AM, Coward, WA, Ceesay, SM, Strain, JJ, McKenna, PG, Nevin, GB, Barker, ME & Hickey, RJ (1990) Simultaneous measurement of free-living energy expenditure by the doubly-labeled water ( 2 H 2 18 O) method and heart-rate monitoring. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 5965.
Livingstone, MBE, Robson, PJ, McCarthy, S, Kiely, M, Harrington, K, Browne, P, Galvin, M, Wareham, NJ & Rennie, KL (2001) Physical activity patterns in a nationally representative sample of adults in Ireland. Public Health Nutrition 4, 11071116.
Lovelady, CA, Meredith, CN, McCrory, MA, Nommsen, LA, Joseph, LJ & Dewey, KG (1993) Energy expenditure in lactating women: a comparison of doubly labeled with heart-rate-monitoring methods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57, 512518.
Lytle, LA, Kelder, SH, Perry, CL & Klepp, K-I (1995) Covariance of adolescent health behaviors: the Class of 1989 Study. Health Education Research 10, 133146.
MacConnie, SE, Gilliam, TB, Geenen, DL & Pels, AE (1982) Daily physical activity patterns in prepubertal children involved in a vigorous exercise program. International Journal of Sports Medicine 3, 202207.
Macek, M, Bell, D, Rutenfranz, J, Vavra, J, Masopust, J, Neidhart, B & Schmidt, KH (1989) A comparison of coronary risk factors in groups of trained and untrained adolescents. European Journal of Applied Physiology 58, 577582.
Macera, CA & Pratt, M (2000) Public health surveillance of physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 71, S97S103.
Maffeis, C, Talamini, G & Tatò, L (1998) Influence of diet, physical activity and parents' obesity on children's adiposity: a four-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Obesity 22, 758764.
Malina, RM (1995) Physical activity and fitness of children and youth: questions and implications. Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health 4, 123135.
Malina, RM (1996) Tracking of physical activity and physical fitness across the lifespan. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 67, Suppl. 3, S48S57.
Marti, B & Vartiainen, E (1989) Relation between leisure time exercise and cardiovascular risk factors among 15-year-olds in eastern Finland. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 43, 228233.
Martínez, ME, Giovannucci, E, Spiegelman, D, Hunter, DJ, Willett, WC & Colditz, GA (1997) Leisure-time physical activity, body size, and colon cancer in women: Nurses' Health Study Research Group. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89, 948955.
Martínez-González, MA, Martínez, JA, Hu, FB, Gibney, MJ & Kearney, J (1999) Physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle and obesity in the European Union. International Journal of Obesity 23, 11921201.
Melanson, EL & Freedson, PS (1996) Physical activity assessment: a review of methods. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 36, 385396.
Mensink, GB, Deketh, M, Mul, MD, Schuit, AJ & Hoffmeister, H (1996) Physical activity and its association with cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. Epidemiology 7, 391397.
Montoye, HJ, Kemper, HCG, Saris, WHM & Washburn, RA (1996) Measuring Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Moore, LL, Nguyen, US, Rothman, KJ, Cupples, LA & Ellison, RC (1995) Preschool physical activity level and change in body fatness in young children. The Framingham Children's Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 142, 982988.
Murgatroyd, PR, Shetty, PS & Prentice, AM (1993) Techniques for the measurement of human energy expenditure: a practical guide. International Journal of Obesity 17, 549568.
Murphy, MH & Hardman, AE (1998) Training effects of short and long bouts of brisk walking in sedentary women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30, 152157.
Must, A, Jacques, PF, Dallal, GE, Bajema, CJ & Dietz, WH (1992) Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1992 to 1935. New England Journal of Medicine 327 ,13501355.
Must, A & Strauss, RS (1999) Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity. International Journal of Obesity 23 Suppl. 2, S2S11.
Nelson, L, Jennings, GL, Elser, MD & Kover, PI (1986) Effects of changing levels of physical activity on blood pressure and haemodynamics in essential hypertension. Lancet i, 473476.
Paeratakul, S, Popkin, BM, Keyou, G, Adair, LS & Stevens, J (1998) Changes in diet and physical activity affect the body mass index of Chinese adults. International Journal of Obesity 22, 424431.
Paffenbarger, RS, Hyde, RT, Wing, AL & Hsieh, CC (1986) Physical activity, all-cause mortality, and longevity of college alumni. New England Journal of Medicine 314, 605613.
Paffenbarger, RS, Wing, AL, Hyde, RT & Jung, D (1983) Chronic disease in former college students. XX. Physical activity and incidence of hypertension of college alumni. American Journal of Epidemiology 117, 245257.
Pate, RR (1993) Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 33, 321326.
Pate, RR, Baranowski, T, Dowda, M & Trost, SG (1996) Tracking of physical activity in oung children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 28, 9296.
Pate, RR, Long, BJ & Heath, G (1994) Descriptive epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 434447.
Pate, RR, Pratt, M, Blair, SN, Haskell, WL, Macera, CA, Bouchard, C et al. (1995) Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 273, 402407.
Pate, RR & Ross, JG (1987) The national children and youth fitness study II: factors associated with health-related fitness. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 58, 9395.
Philippaerts, RM, Westerterp, KR & Lefevre, J (1999) Doubly labelled water validation of three physical activity questionnaires. International Journal of Sports Medicine 20, 284289.
Powell, KE, Thompson, PD, Caspersen, CJ & Kendrick, KS (1987) Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annual Review of Public Health 8, 253287.
Prentice, AM, Black, AE, Coward, WA, Davies, HL, Goldberg, GR, Murgatroyd, PR, Ashford, J, Sawyer, M & Whitehead, RG (1986) High levels of energy expenditure in obese women. British Medical Journal 292, 983987.
Prentice, AM & Jebb, SA (1995) Obesity in Britain: gluttony or sloth? British Medical Journal 311, 437439.
Racette, SB, Schoeller, DA & Kushner, RF (1995) Comparison of heart rate and physical activity recall with doubly labeled water in obese women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27, 126133.
Raitakari, OT, Porkka, KVK, Taimela, S, Telema, R, Räsänen, L & Viikari, JSA (1994) Effects of persistent physical activity and inactivity on coronary risk factors in children and young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. American Journal of Epidemiology 140, 195205.
Reaven, PD, Barrett-Conner, E & Edelstein, S (1991) Relation between leisure-time physical activity and blood pressure in older women. Circulation 83, 559565.
Remington, PL, Smith, MY, Williamson, DF, Anda, RF, Gentry, EM & Hogelin, GC (1988) Design, characteristics, and usefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981–1987. Public Health Reports 103, 366375.
Richardson, MT, Leon, AS, Jacobs, DR, Ainsworth, BE & Serfass, R (1994) Comprehensive evaluation of the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 47, 271281.
Riddoch, CJ (1998) Relationships between physical activity and health in young people. In Young and Active, pp. 1748 [Biddle, SJH, Sallis, JF and Cavill, NC, editors]. London: Health Education Authority.
Riddoch, CJ & Boreham, CAG (1995) The health-related physical activity of children. Sports Medicine 19, 86102.
Riddoch, CJ, Mahoney, C, Murphy, N, Boreham, C & Cran, G (1991) The physical activity patterns of Northern Irish schoolchildren ages 11–16 years. Pediatric Exercise Science 3, 300309.
Riddoch, CJ, Murphy, N, Nicholls, A, Van Wersche, A & Cran, G (1990) The Northern Ireland Health and Fitness Survey. Belfast: The Queen's University of Belfast.
Rissanen, AM, Heliövaara, M, Knekt, P, Reunanen, A & Aromaa, A (1991) Determinants of weight gain and overweight in adult Finns. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45, 419430.
Robinson, TN, Hammer, LD, Killen, JD, Kraemer, HC, Wilson, DM, Hayward, C & Taylor, CB (1993) Does television viewing increase obesity and decrease physical activity? Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses among adolescent girls. Pediatrics 91, 273280.
Robinson, TN & Killen, JD (1995) Ethnic and gender differences in the relationships between television viewing and obesity, physical activity, and dietary fat intake. Journal of Health Education 26, Suppl., 9198.
Ross, JG & Gilbert, GG (1985) The National Children and Youth Fitness Study: a summary of findings. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 56, 4550.
Rowland, TW (1996) Is there a scientific rationale supporting the value of exercise for the present and future cardiovascular health of children? The con argument. Pediatric Exercise Science 8, 303309.
Sallis, JF (1993) Epidemiology of physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 33, 403408.
Sallis, JF (2000) Age-related decline in physical activity: a synthesis of human and animal studies. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 15981600.
Sallis, JF, Condon, SA, Goggin, KJ, Roby, JJ, Kolody, B & Alcarez, JE (1993) The development of self-administered physical activity surveys for 4th grade students. Research Quarterly for Sport and Exercise 64, 2531.
Sallis, JF, Haskell, WL, Wood, PD, Fortmann, SP, Rogers, T, Blair, SN & Paffenbarger, RS (1985) Physical activity assessment methodology in the Five-City Project. American Journal of Epidemiology 121, 91106.
Sallis, JF & Hovell, MF (1990) Determinants of exercise behaviour. Exercise and Sports Science Reviews 18, 307330.
Sallis, JF, Hovell, MF, Hofstetter, CR, Faucher, P, Elder, JP, Blanchard, J, Caspersen, CJ, Powell, KE & Christensen, GM (1989) A multivariate study of determinants of vigorous exercise in a community sample. Preventive Medicine 18, 2034.
Sallis, JF & Owen, N (1999) Physical Activity and Behavioral Medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sallis, JF & Patrick, K (1994) Physical activity guidelines for adolescents: consensus statement. Pediatric Exercise Science 6, 302314.
Saris, WHM (1985) The assessment and evaluation of daily physical activity in children: a review. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 318, 3748.
Saris, WHM (1986) Habitual physical activity in children: methodology and findings in health and disease. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 18, 253263.
Schoeller, DA & Racette, SB (1990) A review of field techniques for the assessment of energy expenditure. Journal of Nutrition 120, 14921495.
Schonfeld-Warden, N & Warden, CH (1997) Pediatric obesity: an overview of etiology and treatment. Pediatric Clinics of North America 44, 339361.
Serdula, MK, Ivery, D, Coates, RJ, Freedman, DS, Williamson, DF & Byers, T (1993) Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Preventive Medicine 22, 167177.
Shah, M & Jeffery, RW (1991) Is obesity due to overeating and inactivity, or to a defective metabolic rate? A review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 13, 7381.
Shannon, B, Peacock, J & Brown, MJ (1995) Body fatness, television viewing and caloric-intake of a sample of Pennsylvania Sixth Grade Children. Journal of Nutrition Education 23, 262268.
Shephard, RJ (1986) Fitness of a nation: lessons from the Canada Fitness Survey. Medicine and Sports Science 22, 116131.
Shields, DLL & Bredemeier, BJL (1994) Character Development and Physical Activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Simoes, EJ, Byers, T, Coates, RJ, Serdula, M, Mokdad, AH & Heath, GW (1995) The association between leisure-time physical activity and dietary fat in American adults. American Journal of Public Health 85, 240244.
Simons-Morton, B, O'Hara, N, Simons-Morton, D & Parcel, G (1987) Children and fitness: A public health perspective. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 58, 295302.
Slattery, ML, McDonald, A, Bild, DE, Caan, BJ, Hilner, JE, Jacobs, DR & Liu, K (1992) Associations of body fat and its distribution with dietary intake, physical activity, alcohol, and smoking in blacks and whites. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 55, 943949.
Sleap, M & Tolfrey, K (2001) Do 9- to 12 yr-old children meet existing physical activity recommendations for health?. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33, 591596.
Sport England (2000) Young People and Sport in England 1999. London: Sport England.
Stager, JM, Lindeman, A & Edwards, J (1995) The use of doubly labelled water in quantifying energy expenditure during prolonged activity. Sports Medicine 19, 166172.
Stephens, T (1988) Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: evidence from four population surveys. Preventive Medicine 17, 3547.
Stephens, T & Caspersen, CJ (1994) The demography of physical activity. In Physical Activity, Fitness and Health, pp. 204213 [Bouchard, C, Shephard, RJ and Stephens, T, editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Steptoe, A & Butler, N (1996) Sports participation and emotional well being in adolescents. Lancet 347, 17891792.
Sunnegardh, J, Bratteby, L-E, Hagman, U, Samuelson, G & Sjolin, S (1986) Physical activity in relation to energy intake and body fat in 8- and 13-year old children in Sweden. Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica 75, 955963.
Taylor, CB, Sallis, JF & Needle, R (1985) The relationship of physical activity and exercise to mental health. Public Health Reports 100, 195201.
Taylor, WC, Blair, SN, Cummings, SS, Wun, CC & Malina, RM (1999) Childhood and adolescent physical activity patterns and adult physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, 118123.
Telema, R & Yang, X (2000) Decline of physical activity from youth to young adulthood in Finland. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 16171622.
Tell, GS & Vellar, OD (1988) Physical fitness, physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study. Preventive Medicine 17, 1224.
Torun, B, Davies, PSW, Livingstone, MBE, Paolisso, M, Sackett, R & Spurr, GB (1996) Energy requirements and dietary energy recommendations for children and adolescents 1 to 18 years old. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 50 Suppl. 1, S37S81.
Treuth, MS, Adolph, AL & Butte, NF (1998) Energy expenditure in children predicted from heart rate and activity calibrated against respiration calorimetry. American Journal of Physiology 275, E12E18.
Troiano, RP, Flegal, KM, Kuczmarski, RJ, Campbell, SM & Johnson, CL (1995) Overweight prevalence and trends for children and adolescents: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1963 to 1991. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 149, 10851091.
Troiano, RP, Macera, CA & Ballard-Barbash, R (2001) Be physically active each day. How can we know?. Journal of Nutrition 131, 451S460S.
Troisi, RJ, Heinold, JW, Vokonos, PS & Weiss, ST (1991) Cigarette smoking, dietary intake, and physical activity: effects on body fat distribution – the Normative Aging Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 11041111.
Trost, SG (2001) Objective measurement of physical activity in youth: current issues, future directions. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 29, 3236.
Tucker, LA (1986) The relationship of television viewing to physical fitness and obesity. Adolescence 21, 797806.
Twisk, JWR, Kemper, HCG, Van Mechelen, W, Post, GB & Van Lenthe, FJ (1998) Body fatness: longitudinal relationship of body mass index and the sum of skinfolds with other risk factors for coronary heart disease. International Journal of Obesity 22, 915922.
Twisk, JWR, Van Mechelen, W, Kemper, HCG & Post, GB (1997) The relation between 'long-term exposure' to lifestyle during youth and young adulthood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease at adult age. Journal of Adolescent Health 20, 309319.
US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (2000) Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2000. http://www.health.gov/ dietaryguidelines/dgac/.
US Department of Health and Human Services (1996) Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
Vaccaro, P & Mahon, AD (1989) The effects of exercise on coronary heart disease risk factors in children. Sports Medicine 8, 139153.
Vanhala, M, Vanhala, P, Kumpusalo, E, Halonen, P & Takala, J (1998) Relation between obesity from childhood to adulthood and the metabolic syndrome: population based study. British Medical Journal 317, 319.
Van Mechelen, W, Twisk, JWR, Post, GB, Snel, J & Kemper, HCG (2000) Physical activity of young people; the Amsterdam Longitudinal Growth and Health Study. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 32, 16101616.
Voorrips, LE, Meijers, JHH, Sol, P, Seidell, JC & Van Staveren, WA (1991) History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity. International Journal of Obesity 16, 199205.
Wannamethee, G & Shaper, AG (1992) Physical activity and stroke in British middle-aged men. British Medical Journal 304, 597601.
Wareham, NJ, Hennings, SJ, Prentice, AM & Day, NE (1997) Feasibility of heart-rate monitoring to estimate total level and pattern of energy expenditure in a population-based epidemiological study: the Ely young cohort feasibility study 1994–1995. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 889900.
Wareham, NJ & Rennie, KL (1998) The assessment of physical activity in individuals and populations: Why try to be more precise about how physical activity is assessed?. International Journal of Obesity 22 Suppl. 2, S30S38.
Webber, LS, Osganian, SK, Feldman, HA, Wu, M, McKenzie, TL, Nichaman, M, Lytle, LA, Edmundson, E, Cutler, J, Nader, PR & Luepker, RV, (1996) Cardiovascular risk factors among children after a two and a half year intervention – The CATCH Study. Preventive Medicine 25, 432441.
Welk, GJ, Corbin, CB (1995) The validity of the Tritrac – R3D Activity Monitor for the assessment of physical activity in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 66, 202209.
Welk, GJ, Corbin, CB & Dale, D (2000) Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 71, Suppl., 5973.
Welk, GJ, Corbin, CB & Kampert, JB (1998) The validity of the Tritrac-R3D activity monitor for the assessment of physical activity: II. Temporal relationships among objective assessments. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 69, 395399.
Weller, I & Corey, P (1998) The impact of excluding non-leisure energy expenditure on the relation between physical activity and mortality in women. Epidemiology 9, 632635.
Westerterp, KR (1999 a) Assessment of physical activity level in relation to obesity: current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, Suppl., S522S525.
Westerterp, KR (1999 b) Physical activity assessment with accelerometers. International Journal of Obesity 23, Suppl. 3, 4549.
Westerterp, KR & Bouten, CVC (1997) Physical activity assessment: comparison between movement registration and doubly labeled water method. Zeitschrift für Ernährungswissenschaft 36, 263267.
Whitaker, RC, Wright, JA, Pepe, MS, Seidel, KD & Dietz, WH (1997) Predicting obesity in young adulthood from childhood and parental obesity. New England Journal of Medicine 337, 869873.
Wickham, CAC, Walsh, K, Cooper, C, Barker, DJP, Margetts, BM, Morris, J & Bruce, SA (1989) Dietary calcium, physical activity, and risk of hip fracture: a prospective study. British Medical Journal 299, 889892.
Williams, PT (1997) Evidence for the incompatibility of age-neutral overweight and age-neutral physical activity standards for runners. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 65, 13911396.
Williamson, DF, Madans, J, Anda, RF, Kleinman, JC, Kahn, HS & Byers, T (1993) Recreational physical activity and ten-year weight change in a US national cohort. International Journal of Obesity 17, 279286.
Wing, RR (1999) Physical activity in the treatment of adult overweight and obesity: current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, Suppl., S547S552.
Wolf, AM, Gortmaker, SL, Cheung, L, Gray, HM, Herzog, DB & Colditz, GA (1993) Activity, inactivity, and obesity: racial, ethnic, and age differences among schoolgirls. American Journal of Public Health 83, 16251627.
Wong, MY, Day, NE & Wareham, NJ (1999) Measurement error in epidemiology: the design of validation studies II: the multivariate situation. Statistics in Medicine 18, 28312845.
Wong, ND, Hei, TK, Qaqundah, PY, Davidson, DM, Bassin, SL & Gold, KV (1992) Television viewing and pediatric hypercholesterolemia. Pediatrics 90, 7579.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed