Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contents:

Information:

  • Access

Actions:

      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        Differences in responses to breakfast between breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        Differences in responses to breakfast between breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        Differences in responses to breakfast between breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers
        Available formats
        ×
Export citation

Studies have shown that body mass index (BMI) in breakfast eaters is typically lower than that of breakfast skippers either as a result of differences in energy intake( 1 ) or energy expenditure (EE)( 2 ). Since evidence available is unable to clarify the mechanisms that link BMI with regular breakfast consumption( 3 ), our study aimed to explain this association with an experimental trial to establish underlying differences between breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers that were normal weight and overweight, by assessing resting metabolic rate (RMR), post-breakfast EE, blood glucose, hunger, physical activity and ‘morningness’ (an indicator of personal circadian rhythm). Ethical approval was granted by the University of Roehampton.

Data were collected from 37 participants and were organised into four groups: Group 1 low BMI breakfast eater, Group 2 low BMI breakfast skipper, Group 3 high BMI breakfast eater, Group 4 high BMI breakfast skipper. Douglas bags, blood samples and hunger ratings were collected at baseline and every 30 min for 3 hours following a carbohydrate based breakfast. Physical activity and food intake were assessed with seven day diaries and morningess using the Composite Morningess questionnaire( 4 ).

Metabolic equivalent task. **Groups 3 & 4 greater than 1 & 2 (p<0.01), *3 lower than 1 (p<0.05), a2 & 4 lower than 1 (p<0.01), b3 & 4 lower than 1 & 2 (p<0.01).

The overweight groups 3 & 4 had higher BMI's, lower RMR and lower EE (both) per kg per day than the normal BMI groups 1 & 2. There were no significant differences in energy intakes between groups. Breakfast skippers were notably less hungry during the morning (P=0.01), consumed more caffeine per day (P=0.04) and also tended to show less morningness (P=0.06); thus it is possible that there are physiological and behavioural predispositions that determine breakfasting habits. Further work will compare all groups in both breakfast and non-breakfast conditions.

This work was supported by Kellogg's.

1. Utter, J, Scragg, R, Mhurchu, C et al. (2007) J Am Diet Assoc 107, 570576.
2. Timlin, M, Pereira, MA, Story, M et al. (2008) Pediatrics 121, e638645.
3. Halsey, L, Huber, J, Reeves, S et al. (2012) Pub J Health Nutr 15, 238245.
4. Barton, J, Costa, G, Smith, L et al. (1995) Work & Stress 9, 430.