Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Contents:

Information:

  • Access
  • Cited by 1

Figures:

Actions:

      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        Dietary factors that influence maternal iodine status in UK pregnant women
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        Dietary factors that influence maternal iodine status in UK pregnant women
        Available formats
        ×

        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        Dietary factors that influence maternal iodine status in UK pregnant women
        Available formats
        ×
Export citation

An adequate intake of iodine is vital during pregnancy as iodine is required for fetal brain development( 1 ). We have previously shown that a low iodine status in UK pregnant women is adversely associated with child cognition (IQ and reading ability) up to the age of nine years( Reference Bath, Steer and Golding 2 ). As the UK is now classified as mildly iodine deficient and has no national policy for ensuring adequate iodine status, such as salt iodisation, it is important to understand the dietary factors that contribute to iodine status in pregnancy.

Our study investigated maternal iodine status in women of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort who were recruited in the 1990s( Reference Golding, Pembrey and Jones 3 ). We measured iodine concentration (and creatinine to adjust for urine volume) in urine samples collected from 1475 women throughout pregnancy [median gestational age 11 (IQR 9–13) weeks]. Women completed a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) during pregnancy( Reference Rogers and Emmett 4 ) and, for the purposes of comparing to urinary iodine excretion, six iodine-rich food items were selected [i.e. milk, cheese, eggs (and quiche), seafood (white, oily and shellfish) meat/poultry, and grains (rice, pasta and bread)]. The FFQ answers were converted to weekly number of portions for single items (eggs and cheese) or weekly intake (grams)( Reference Rogers and Emmett 4 ) for composite food groups (seafood, milk, meat/poultry and grains) and then recoded to tertiles.

The group was classified as iodine-deficient( 1 ), with a median urinary iodine concentration of 92.6 μg/L (iodine/creatinine ratio 114 μg/g). The iodine/creatinine ratio significantly differed between tertiles of weekly milk (p<0.001) and seafood (p=0.03) consumption and between the number portions of egg consumed per week (p=0.01). After adjustment for all six food categories, maternal age and gestational week of urine sample, a low iodine status (<150 μg/g) was significantly associated with low milk and egg consumption (Table); maternal age was independently positively associated with the iodine/creatinine ratio (p=0.001).

* adjusted for dietary factors, maternal age and gestational week of urine sample.

Milk and eggs are important dietary sources of iodine in pregnancy and although seafood was related to iodine status in the unadjusted analysis, the association disappeared after adjustment for other factors. This may be indicative of low seafood consumption in the UK and may possibly reflect the fact that the iodine concentration in a urine sample is related to recent dietary intake (previous 24–48 hours), whereas the FFQ gives a more general overview of dietary intake, so some food items may fail to show associations. Our results should be interpreted with a degree of caution because of the inherent limitations of dietary assessment from food-frequency questionnaires.

This work was partly supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme (FP7/2008–2013) grant agreement no. 212652 (NUTRIMENTHE “The Effect of Diet on the Mental Performance of Children”).

1. WHO, UNICEF & ICCIDD (2007) Geneva: World Health Organisation.
2. Bath, SC, Steer, C, Golding, J et al. (2013) Lancet, In press.
3. Golding, J, Pembrey, M & Jones, R (2001) Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 15, 7487.
4. Rogers, I & Emmett, P (1998) Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 246250.