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DERIVATIONS ON GROUP ALGEBRAS

  • FEREIDOUN GHAHRAMANI (a1), VOLKER RUNDE (a2) (a3) and GEORGE WILLIS (a4)

Abstract

Let $G$ be a locally compact group. The question of whether ${\cal H}^1(L^1(G),M(G))$, the first Hochschild cohomology group of $L^1(G)$ with coefficients in $M(G)$, is zero was first studied by B. E. Johnson and initiated his development of the theory of amenable Banach algebras. He was able to show that ${\cal H}^1(L^1(G),M(G)) = \{ 0 \}$ whenever $G$ is amenable, a $[SIN]$-group, or a matrix group satisfying certain conditions. No group such that ${\cal H}^1(L^1(G),M(G)) \neq \{ 0 \}$ is known. In this paper, we approach the problem of whether ${\cal H}^1(L^1(G),M(G)) = \{ 0 \}$ from several angles. Using weakly almost periodic functions, we show that ${\cal H}^1(L^1(G),L^1(G))$ is always Hausdorff for unimodular $G$. We also show that for $[IN]$-groups, every derivation $D \colon L^1(G) \to L^1(G)$ is implemented, not necessarily by an element of $M(G)$, but at least by an element of $\mbox{VN}(G)$, the group von Neumann algebra of $G$. This applies, in particular, to the group $G := {\mathbb T}^2 \rtimes \mbox{SL}(2, {\mathbb Z})$, for which it is unknown whether ${\cal H}^1(L^1(G),M(G)) = \{ 0 \}$. Finally, we analyse the structure of derivations on $L^1(G)$; an important r\^ole is played by the closed normal subgroup $N$ of $G$ generated by the elements of $G$ with relatively compact conjugacy classes. We can write an arbitrary derivation $D \colon L^1(G) \to L^1(G)$ as a sum $D = D_N + D_{N^\perp}$, where $D_N$ and $D_{N^\perp}$ can be tackled with different techniques. Under suitable conditions, all satisfied by ${\mathbb T}^2 \rtimes \mbox{SL}(2,{\mathbb Z})$, we can show that $D_N$ is implemented by an element of $\mbox{VN}(G)$ and that $D_{N^\perp}$ is implemented by a measure. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classification: 22D05, 22D25, 43A10, 43A20, 46H25, 46L10, 46M20, 47B47, 47B48.

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