We perform hydrodynamic supernova (SN) simulations in spherical symmetry for progenitor models with solar metallicity across the stellar mass range from 9.0 to 120 M⊙ to explore the progenitor-explosion and progenitor-remnant connections based on the neutrino-driven mechanism. We use an approximative treatment of neutrino transport and replace the high-density interior of the neutron star (NS) by an inner boundary condition based on an analytic proto-NS core-cooling model, whose free parameters are chosen to reproduce the observables of SN 1987A and the Crab SN for theoretical models of their progenitor stars.
Judging the fate of a massive star, either a neutron star (NS) or a black hole (BH), solely by its structure prior to collapse has been ambiguous. Our work and previous attempts find a non-monotonic variation of successful and failed supernovae with zero-age main-sequence mass. We identify two parameters based on the “critical luminosity” concept for neutrino-driven explosions, which in combination allows for a clear separation of exploding and non-exploding cases.
Continuing our simulations beyond shock break-out, we are able to determine nucleosynthesis, light curves, explosion energies, and remnant masses. The resulting NS initial mass function has a mean gravitational mass near 1.4 M⊙. The average BH mass is about 9 M⊙ if only the helium core implodes, and 14 M⊙ if the entire pre-SN star collapses. Only ~10% of SNe come from stars over 20 M⊙, and some of these are Type Ib or Ic.