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Warm dust and gas of massive young stellar objects revealed by Herschel PACS spectroscopy

  • Woojin Kwon (a1) (a2), Floris F. S. van der Tak (a2) (a3), Agata Karska (a4) (a5) (a6), Gregory J. Herczeg (a7), Luis Chavarría (a8), Fabrice Herpin (a9) (a10), Friedrich Wyrowski (a11), Jonathan Braine (a9) (a10) and Ewine F. van Dishoeck (a5) (a6)...

Abstract

We present results of Herschel PACS imaging spectroscopy data toward ten massive young stellar objects taken as part of the WISH project. Our sample consists of four high mass protostellar objects (HMPOs), two hot molecular cores (HMCs), and four ultracompact HII regions (UCHIIs), and the spectra cover a broad range of wavelengths (55 to 210 μm) imaged over an ~50” field with 5×5 spaxels. By fitting the continua utilizing a modified black-body formula we estimate mass-weighted dust temperature and column density distributions of warm dust and find that UCHII regions are hottest and HMCs are most deeply embedded. We also estimate rotational temperature and column density distributions of warm CO gas using the rotational diagram analysis, which are comparable over targets in contrast to continuum results. By comparing high J CO line fluxes to the RATRAN estimates of centrally heated envelope models, we find that majority of warm CO originates from bipolar outflow shocks.

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References

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Doty, S. D. & Neufeld, D. A. 1997, ApJ, 489, 122
Hogerheijde, M. R. & van der Tak, F. F. S. 2000, A&A, 362, 697
Karska, A., Herpin, F., Bruderer, S., et al. 2014a, A&A, 562, 45
Karska, A., Kristensen, L. E., van Dishoeck, E. F., et al. 2014b, A&A, 572, A9
Poglitsch, A., Waelkens, C., Geis, N., et al. 2010, A&A, 518, L2
van der Tak, F. F. S., Chavarría, L., Herpin, F., et al. 2013, A&A, 554, A83
van Dishoeck, E. F., Kristensen, L. E., Benz, A. O., et al. 2011, PASP, 123, 138
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