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Turbulent, steamy red supergiant winds

  • A. M. S. Richards (a1), I. Bains (a2), A. Bartkiewicz (a3), R. J. Cohen (a1), P. J. Diamond (a1), S. Etoka (a1), M. D. Gray (a4), E. E. Lekht (a5), M. R. W. Masheder (a6), E. Mendoza-Torres (a5), K. Murakawa (a7), M. Szymczak (a3), H. J. van Langevelde (a8) (a9), W. Vlemmings (a1) and J. A. Yates (a10)...

Abstract

Rapidly-evolving red supergiants (RSG) lose half or more of their mass before ending their lives as supernovae. Masers allow us to study the mass loss from 4 nearby RSG in AU-scale detail using MERLIN and EVN/global VLBI. The water maser clouds are over-dense and over-magnetised with respect to the surrounding wind. In most cases, the brighter an individual maser component is the smaller its apparent (beamed) FWHM appears, as predicted for approximately spherical clouds. Individual water maser features have a typical half-life of 5-10 yr, but comparison with single dish monitoring suggests that the water vapour clouds themselves survive many decades (the water maser shell crossing time), within which the local masers wink on and off. OH mainline masers are found in the tenuous surrounding gas, overlapping the water maser shell, surrounded by OH 1612-MHz masers at a greater distance from the star.

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References

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Keywords

Turbulent, steamy red supergiant winds

  • A. M. S. Richards (a1), I. Bains (a2), A. Bartkiewicz (a3), R. J. Cohen (a1), P. J. Diamond (a1), S. Etoka (a1), M. D. Gray (a4), E. E. Lekht (a5), M. R. W. Masheder (a6), E. Mendoza-Torres (a5), K. Murakawa (a7), M. Szymczak (a3), H. J. van Langevelde (a8) (a9), W. Vlemmings (a1) and J. A. Yates (a10)...

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