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Commission 4 was among the first set of commissions formed within the IAU at its founding in 1919. (Commissions were originally called “Standing Committees.”) During its 96 years of service to the IAU and astronomical community in general, the commission has been fortunate to have been led by many distinguished scientists — see the list of presidents below.



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Christy, J. W. (1997). The discovery of Pluto's moon, Charon, in 1978. In Stern, S. A. and Tholen, D. J. (Eds.), Pluto and Charon, Tucson, pp. xviixxi. University of Arizona Press.
Clark, B. G. (2003). A review of the history of VLBI. In Zensus, J. A., Cohen, M. H. & Ros, E. (Eds.), Radio Astronomy at the Fringe, Volume 300 of ASP Conference Series, pp. 18.
Eckert, W., Brouwer, D. & Clemence, G. (1951). Coordinates of the five outer planets, 1653–2060. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac XII, US Naval Observatory, Washington.
Eichhorn, H. (1974). Astronomy of Star Positions. New York: Ungar.
Fienga, A., Laskar, J., Exertier, P., Manche, H., & Gastineau, M. (2015). Numerical estimation of the sensitivity of INPOP planetary ephemerides to general relativity parameters. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 123, 325349.
Finkelstein, A. M. (Ed.) (2004). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Yearbook. St. Petersburg: Institute for Applied Astronomy, RAS, Proceedings 10. (In Russian).
Fricke, W., Kopff, A., Gliese, W., Gondolatsch, F., Lederle, T., Howacki, H., Strobel, W., & Stumpff, P. (1963). Fourth fundamental catalogue (FK4). Veröffentlichungen 10, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Heidelberg.
Hilton, J. L., Acton, C., Arlot, J.-E., Bell, S. A., Capitaine, N., Fienga, A., Folkner, W. M., Gastineau, M., Pavlov, D., Pitjeva, E. V., Skripnichenko, V. I., & Wallace, P. (2015). Final update of the IAU Commission 4 working group on standardizing access to ephemerides and file format specification. Division A poster (DAp.2.04) at General Assembly XXIX, International Astronomical Union. Detailed report at
Høg, E. (2011). Astrometry lost and regained. Baltic Astronomy 20, 221230.
Hoyt, W. G. (1980). Planets X and Pluto. Tucson: University of Arizon Press.
Kaplan, G. H. (1981). The IAU resolutions on astronomical constants, time scales, and the fundamental reference frame. Circular 163, US Naval Observatory, Washington.
Kopeikin, S., Efroimsky, M. & Kaplan, G. (2011). Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.
Lieske, J. H. (1968). Mass of the Earth-Moon system from observations of Eros, 1893–1966. Astronomical Journal 73, 628643. Errata at AJ 74, 572, 1969.
Luzum, B., Capitaine, N., Fienga, A., Folkner, W., Fukushima, T., Hilton, J., Hohenkerk, C., Krasinsky, G., Petit, G., Pitjeva, E., Soffel, M., & Wallace, P. (2011). The IAU 2009 system of astronomical constants: the report of the IAU Working Group on Numerical Standards for Fundamental Astronomy. Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy 110, 293304. The Working Group's web pages are at
Mathews, P. M., Herring, T. A. & Buffet, B. A. (2002). Modeling of nutation-precession: New nutation series for nonrigid Earth, and insights into the Earth's interior. Journal of Geophysical Research 107, 2068.
McCarthy, D. D. & Petit, G. (2004). IERS Conventions (2003). Technical Note 32, International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service, Frankfurt am Main.
McCarthy, D. D. & Seidelmann, P. K. (2009). Time: From Earth Rotation to Atomic Physics. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH.
Nautical Almanac Offices of UK and USA (1961). Explanatory Supplement to The Astronomical Ephemeris and The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
Newhall, X. X., Standish, E. M. & Williams, J. G. (1983). DE 102: A numerically integrated ephemeris of the Moon and planets spanning forty-four centuries. Astronomy and Astrophysics 125, 150167.
Pitjeva, E. V. & Pitjev, N. P. (2013). Relativistic effects and dark matter in the solar system from observations of planets and spacecraft. Monthly Notices Royal Astronomical Society 432, 34313437.
Rabe, E. (1950). Derivation of fundamental astronomical constants from the observations of Eros during 1926–1945. Astronomical Journal 55, 112125.
Seidelmann, P. K. (1982). 1980 IAU Theory of Nutation: The final report of the IAU working group on nutation. Celestial Mechanics 27, 79106.
Seidelmann, P. K. (Ed.) (1992). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books.
Standish, E. M. (1993). Planet X: No dynamical evidence in the optical observations. Astronomical Journal 105, 20002006.
Tombaugh, C. W. (1997). The discovery of the ninth planet, Pluto, in 1930. In Stern, S. A. and Tholen, D. J. (Eds.), Pluto and Charon, Tucson, pp. xvxvi. University of Arizona Press.
Urban, S. E. & Seidelmann, P. K. (Eds.) (2012). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books.
Wahr, J. M. (1981). The forced nutations of an elliptical, rotating, elastic and oceanless earth. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society 64, 705727.
Woolard, E. W. (1953). Theory of the rotation of the Earth around its center of mass. Astronomical Papers Prepared for the Use of the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac XV, Part I, US Naval Observatory, Washington.
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