Skip to main content Accessibility help



Commission 22 (Meteors, Meteorites and Interplanetary Dust) was established at the first IAU General Assembly held in Rome in 1922, with William Frederick Denning as its first President. Denning was an accountant by profession, but as an amateur astronomer he contributed extensively to meteor science. Commission 22 thus established a pattern that has continued to this day that non-professional astronomers were welcomed and valued and could play a significant role in its affairs. The field of meteors, meteorites and interplanetary dust has played a disproportional role in the astronomical perception of the general public through the majestic displays of our annual meteor showers. Those in the field deployed many techniques uncommon in other fields of astronomy, studying the “vermin of space”, the small solid bodies that pervade interplanetary space and impact Earth's atmosphere, the surface of the Moon, and that of our satellites in orbit. Over time, the field has tackled a wide array of problems, from predicting the encounter with meteoroid streams, to the origin of our meteorites and the nature of the zodiacal cloud. Commission 22 has played an important role in organizing the field through dedicated meetings, a data centre, and working groups that developed professional-amateur relationships and that organized the nomenclature of meteor showers. The contribution of Commission 22 to the field is perhaps most readily seen in the work of the presidents that followed in the footsteps of Denning.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Available formats



Hide All
Adams, J. C., 1867, MNRAS 27 247252
Appleton, E. V. & Naismith, R., 1947, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 59 461472
Babadzhanov, P. B. & Obrubov, Y. Y., 1980, In: Solid particles in the Solar System Eds Halliday I McIntosh B A D. Reidel Dordrecht 157–162
Babadzhanov, P. B. & Obrubov, Y. Y., 1983, In: Highlights in Astronomy Ed West R M D Reidel Dordrecht 411–419
Borovička, J., Spurný, P., Brown, P., Wiegert, P., Kalenda, P., Clark, D., & Shrbený, L., 2013, Nature 503 235237
Brown, P. G., Revelle, D. O., Tagliaferri, E. & Hildebrand, A. R., 2002, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 37, 661675
Brown, P. G., Assink, J. D., Astiz, L., et al., 2013, Nature 503, 238241
Brouwer, D., 1947, AJ 52 190198
Browning, J., 1867, MNRAS 27 7779
Cabannes, J. Dufay J. & Gauzit, J., 1935, ApJ 88 164172
Ceplecha, Z., 1961 Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslovakia 12 2147
Ceplecha, Z., Rajchl, J., 1965. Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslovakia 16 1522
Chladni, E. F. F., 1794, Ueber den ursprung der von Pallas gefundnen und andern ahnlichen eisenmassen, J F Hartknoch, Riga
Clegg, J. A., Hughes, V. A., Lovell, A. C. B., 1947, MNRAS 107 369378
Davidson, M., 1915, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 25, 292293
Denning, W. F., 1921, Nature 107 1516
Denning, W. F., 1926, MNRAS 87 104107
Denning, W. F., 1928, J. Brit. Astron. Assoc. 38, 302
Draper, J. W., 1864, A history of the intellectual development of Europe, Harper Brothers, New York
Ellicot, A., 1804, Trans. American Philosophical Soc. 6 2829
Elkin, W. J., 1899, American Jl. Of Science and Arts 8 473474
Ellyett, C. D., 1949, MNRAS 109 359364
Ellyett, C. D., Davies, J. G., 1948, Nature 161 596597
Guth, V., 1934, the Realms of the stars, 15 (in Czech)
Hagihara, Y., 1972, Celestial Mechanics, MIT Cambridge Mass
Halley Edmund, 1688, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 16 402406
Halley Edmund, 1714, Phil Trans. Roy. Soc. 29 159164
Halliday, I., Blackwell, A. T., Griffin, A. A., 1978 JRASC 72, 1539
Hasegawa, I., 1993, in Meteors and their parent bodies, Eds Stohl, J., Williams, I. P. Astronomical Institute Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava 209–223.
Hey, J. S., Stewart, G. S., 1947, Proc. Phys. Soc. 59 858883
Herrick, E. C., 1837, American Jl Sci. and Arts 33 176180
Herrick, E. C., 1838, American Jl Sci. and Arts 33 354364
Herrick, E. C., Bradley, F., 1846, American Jl of Science and Arts 1 446447
Howard, E., 1802, Phil.Trans Roy Soc. 92 168212
Hunt, J., Williams, I. P., Fox, K., 1985, MNRAS 217 533538
Jenniskens, P., Butow, S. J., Fonda, M., 2000, EM&P 82 126
Jenniskens, P., 2006, Meteor Showers and their Parent Bodies. Cambridge University Press
Jenniskens, P., Vaubailllon, J., 2008, AJ, 136: 725730
Jenniskens, P., 2008, Earth, Moon and Planets 102, 59
Jenniskens, P., Vaubaillion, J., 2010, AJ 139 18221830
Jones, J., 1985, MNRAS 217 523532
Jopek, T. J., Jenniskens, P, 2011, In: Meteoroids: The smallest solar system bodies. Cooke, W. J., Moser, D. E., Hardin, B. F., Janches, D., eds., NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA/CP-2011-216469, p. 713
Kirkwood, D., 1861, Danville Quarterly Review, 1 614618
Kirkwood, D., 1867, Meteoric Astronomy: a treatise on Shooting Stars, Fireballs and Aerolites, J B Lippencott & Co. Philadelphia
LeVerrier, U. J. J., 1867, Comptes rendus 64 9499
Lyttleton, R. A., 1951, MNRAS 111 268277
Littman, M., 1998, The Heavens on Fire, Cambridge University Press.
Lock, J., 1834, Letter to the Cincinnati Daily Gazzette, August 11
Lovell, A. C. B., Banwell, C. J., Clegg, J. A., 1947 MNRAS 107 164175.
McCrosky, R. E. and Boeschenstein, H. Jr., 1965 SAO Special Report, #173
McCrosky, R. E., Posen, A., Schwartz, G., Shao, C.-Y., 1971, JGR 76, 40904108
McKinley, D. W. R., Millman, P. M., 1949, Proc Inst Radio Eng. 37 364375
Millman, P. M., 1961, JRASC 55, 265267
Newton, H. A., 1863, American J. of Science and Arts, series 2, 36, 145149
Olivier, C. P., 1925, Meteors, The Williams & Wilkins Pub Co, Baltimore
Olmstead, D., 1834, American Journal of Science and Arts 25 363411
Olmstead, D., 1835, American Journal of Science and Arts 26 132174
Öpik, E. J., 1934, Harv. Coll.Obs. Circ., 391
Öpik, E. J., 1940, Analysis of 1436 meteor velocities, Pub. Tartu Obs, 30, 86
Peters, C. F. W., 1867 Astronomische nachrichten 68 287288
Popova, O. P., Jenniskens, P., Emel'yanenko, V., et al., 2013, Science 342, 10691073
Porter, J. G., 1943, MNRAS 103 134153
Pringle, J., 1759, Phil Trans Roy. Soc. 51 259274
Proctor, M., Crommelin, A. C. D., 1937, Comets, their nature Origin and Place in the science of Astronomy, The Technical Press, London
Rittenhouse, D., 1786, Trans. American Phil. Soc. 2 173176
Schiaparelli, G. V., 1867a, Comptes rendus 64 598599
Schiaparelli, G. V., 1867b, Astronomische Nachrichten 68 331332
Shapley, H., Öpik, E. J., Boothroyd, S. L., 1932, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 18 1623
Štohl, J., Williams, I. P., 1993, Meteors and their Parent Bodies, Slovak Academy of Sciences
Twining, A. C., 1834, American J. Sci. and Arts 26 320352
Van Humbolt, A., Bonpland, A., 1852, A Personal Narrative of travels in the equinoctial regions of America during the years 1799–1804, London
Vaubaillon, J., Koten, P., Margonis, al., 2015, EM&P 114, 137157
Von Niessl, G., Hoffmeister, C., 1925, Katalog der Bestimmungsgroßen für 611 Bahnen großer Meteore, Denksch. d'Akad. d'Wiss. Wien, 10
Weinek, L., 1888, Astronomische Beobachtungen an der K.K.Sternwarte zu Prag, in den Jahren 1885, 1886, und 1887
Weiss, E., 1867, Astronomische Nachrichten 68 381384
Weiss, E., 1868, Astronomische Nachrichten 72 81102
Whipple, F. L., 1938, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 79 499548
Whipple, F. L., 1940, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 82 275290
Whipple, F. L., 1950, Ap. J 111 375394
Whipple, F. L., 1951, Ap. J 113 464474
Whipple, F. L., Hamid, S. E., 1950, AJ 55 185186
Williams, I. P., 2002, The evolution of meteoroid streams, in Meteors in the Earth's Atmosphere, Murad E Williams I. P., eds., Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1332
Williams, I. P., 2004, JIMO 32 1120
Williams, I. P., 2011, A&G 52 2.20–2.26
Williams, I. P., Murray, C. D., Hughes, D. W., 1979, MNRAS 189 483492
MathJax is a JavaScript display engine for mathematics. For more information see

Related content

Powered by UNSILO



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.