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Detection and Characterization of Transiting Systems with Smaller Exoplanets

  • Teruyuki Hirano (a1), Norio Narita (a2), Akihiko Fukui (a2), Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda (a3), Joshua N. Winn (a3), Yasushi Suto (a1) and Atsushi Taruya (a1)...

Abstract

We present our effort to detect and characterize transiting systems with small exoplanets. First we present our on-going project to detect transiting exoplanets around late-type stars. As many authors point out, late-type stars can host potentially habitable rocky planets, whose transits are detectable with 2-meter class telescopes. We aim at detecting (small-sized) transiting exoplanets around M-type stars and are conducting a survey using the Okayama 1.88m telescope. We introduce our campaign at Okayama. Next we discuss the characterization of small-sized exoplanets. We focus on the measurement of the spin-orbit angle, the angle between the stellar spin axis and planetary orbital axis. The spin-orbit relations are of great importance in discussing planetary formations, evolutions, and migrations. To this point, the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect, an apparent radial velocity anomaly during a planetary transit, has been mainly investigated to measure the projected spin-orbit angles. However, as the size of the transiting planet becomes smaller, the detection of the RM effect becomes challenging because of the small RM signal. We have newly developed a technique to investigate spin-orbit relations for smaller planets by combining Kepler's ultra-precise photometry and spectroscopic measurements. We show that, contrary to planetary systems with close-in giant planets, most of the systems with small-sized planets (including Earth-sized ones) have smaller spin-orbit angles, which implies a different evolutional history of the planetary systems. We also discuss future prospects on the detection and characterization of smaller transiting exoplanets.

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References

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Detection and Characterization of Transiting Systems with Smaller Exoplanets

  • Teruyuki Hirano (a1), Norio Narita (a2), Akihiko Fukui (a2), Roberto Sanchis-Ojeda (a3), Joshua N. Winn (a3), Yasushi Suto (a1) and Atsushi Taruya (a1)...

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