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ALMA observations of Molecules in Supernova 1987A

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 October 2017

M. Matsuura
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
R. Indebetouw
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA
S. Woosley
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
V. Bujarrabal
Affiliation:
Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (OAN-IGN), Apartado 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
F. J. Abellán
Affiliation:
Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain
R. McCray
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411, USA
J. Kamenetzky
Affiliation:
Westminster College, Department of Physics, 1840 South 1300 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84105, USA
C. Fransson
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Alba Nova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
M. J. Barlow
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
H. L. Gomez
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK
P. Cigan
Affiliation:
School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA, UK
I De Looze
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
J. Spyromilio
Affiliation:
European Southern Observatory (ESO), Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, 85748 Garching, Germany
L. Staveley-Smith
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia ARC Centre of Excellence for All-Sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Australia
G. Zanardo
Affiliation:
International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia
P. Roche
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK
J. Larsson
Affiliation:
KTH, Department of Physics, and the Oskar Klein Centre, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
S. Viti
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
J. Th. van Loon
Affiliation:
School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UK
J. C. Wheeler
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259, USA
M. Baes
Affiliation:
Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
R. Chevalier
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325, USA
P. Lundqvist
Affiliation:
Department of Astronomy, The Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, Alba Nova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
J. M. Marcaide
Affiliation:
Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Spain
E. Dwek
Affiliation:
Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
M. Meixner
Affiliation:
Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218, USA Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
C.-Y. Ng
Affiliation:
Department of Physics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China
G. Sonneborn
Affiliation:
Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
J. Yates
Affiliation:
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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Abstract

Supernova (SN) 1987A has provided a unique opportunity to study how SN ejecta evolve in 30 years time scale. We report our ALMA spectral observations of SN 1987A, taken in 2014, 2015 and 2016, with detections of CO, 28SiO, HCO+ and SO, with weaker lines of 29SiO.

We find a dip in the SiO line profiles, suggesting that the ejecta morphology is likely elongated. The difference of the CO and SiO line profiles is consistent with hydrodynamic simulations, which show that Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities causes mixing of gas, with heavier elements much more disturbed, making more elongated structure.

Using 28SiO and its isotopologues, Si isotope ratios were estimated for the first time in SN 1987A. The estimated ratios appear to be consistent with theoretical predictions of inefficient formation of neutron rich atoms at lower metallicity, such as observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud (about half a solar metallicity).

The deduced large HCO+ mass and small SiS mass, which are inconsistent to the predictions of chemical model, might be explained by some mixing of elements immediately after the explosion. The mixing might have made some hydrogen from the envelope to sink into carbon and oxygen-rich zone during early days after the explosion, enabling the formation of a substantial mass of HCO+. Oxygen atoms may penetrate into silicon and sulphur zone, suppressing formation of SiS.

Our ALMA observations open up a new window to investigate chemistry, dynamics and explosive-nucleosynthesis in supernovae.

Type
Contributed Papers
Copyright
Copyright © International Astronomical Union 2017 

References

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