There are two schools of thought concerning the most appropriate environment in which to select breeding animals. One says ‘ Always select animals under environmental conditions similar to those where they are to be used ‘. The other says ‘ Select breeding animals in the optimum environment so that they have the best chance of revealing their genetic capabilities ‘. Experiments on growth of laboratory mice and experience with European cattle in the tropics have shown the advisability of the first course in these cases. In regard to hill sheep and dairy cattle in Britain, on the other hand, practice favours the second course, but there is little experimental evidence to support it.