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Lecture by Benedict Kingsbury

  • Benedict Kingsbury

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1 Kingsbury, Karen J, Krisch, Nico&Stewart, Richard The Emergence of Global Administrative Law, 68 Law &C on temp. Prob s. 15 (Summer/Autumn 2005 ).

2 Stein, Lorenz von Einige Bemerkungen über das intemationale Verwaltungsrecht, 6 Jahrbuch für Gesetz gebung, Verwaltung und Volkswirtschaft im Deutschen Reich 395 (1882 ).

3 Négulesco, Paul Principes du Droit International Administratif, 51 Recueil des Cours 579 (1935). See 1 WÜrterbuch des VÜlkerrechts undder Diplomatie (Karl Strupp, ed., 1924); Karl Strupp, Internationale Verwaltungsgemeinschaften, in Worterbuch des Volkerrechts undder Diplomatie , supra, at 573-77; Karl Neumeyer, Internationales Verwaltungsrecht: Volkerrechtliche Grundlagen, in Worterbuch des VÜlkerrechts undder Diplomatie , supra, at 577-81.

4 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Executive Board of the Clean Development Mechanism, Clarifications to Facilitate the Implementation of the Procedures for Review as Referred to in Paragraph 41 of the CDM Modalities and Procedures, EB16, Annex 5 (2004), available at http://cdm.unfccc.int/EB/Meetings/(last visited May 20, 2005).

5 This is a hypothetical example, but compare the objections by several NGOs to the Dutch government's proposal to seek CDM registration of the Wayang Windu geothermal plant project in Java, Indonesia. The objectors argued that the plant was being built anyway, and was a “business-as-usual” project that did not meet the requirement of “ additionality.” Letter from the Climate Action Network Europe, et al. to the CDM Executive Board, CDM Projects Selected by Dutch Government (Mar. 18, 2003), available at: http://www.climnet.org/EUenergy/CDM.htm (last visited February 20, 2005). http://www.climnet.org/EUenergy/CDM.htm

6 See generally Fidler, David,SARS: Governance andthe Globalization of Disease (2004).

7 Wellens, Karel,Remedies Against International Organisations (2002); August Reinisch ,International Organizations Before National Courts (2000).

8 ISO standards do not have the express recognition in GATT, GATS, or the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Agreement that the standards of the Codex Alimentarius Commission and other bodies receive in the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards (SPS) Agreement. ISO standards are nevertheless important in TBT Agreement practice. Legal tests used in assessing national standards for consistency with international standards under Article 3(1) of the SPS Agreement are evolving—see, e.g., WTO Appellate Body on European Communities: Trade Description of Sardines, AB-2002-3, WT/DS231/AB/R (Sep. 26, 2002).

9 Mattli, Walter& BÜthe, Tim,Setting International Standards: Technological Rationality or Primacy of Power?, 56 World Pol . 1 (2003).

10 The Liban Hussein case, concerning a Somali immigrant to Canada whose Barakaat North America money transfer business was initially suspected by U.S. authorities of involvement in terrorist financing. After various proceedings in Canadian courts and the discontinuance of government proceedings against him, the applicant was eventually removed from the Security Council list. For a discussion of this case, see David Dyzenhaus, The Rule of (Administrative) Law in International Law, 68 Law & Cont . Probs . 129 (Summer/Autumn 2005).

11 Case T-306/01 R, Aden v. Council, 2002 ECR11-02387 (concerning Swedish nations of Somali origin connected with A1 Barakaat). After inconclusive preliminary rulings in the European Court of First Instance, the Swedish government eventually obtained agreement in the Security Council 1267 committee to deletion of Abdirisak Aden from the Security Council list. See Press Release, United Nations, 1267 Committee Approves Deletion of Three Individuals and Three Entities from Its List, SC/7490 (Aug. 27, 2002), available at http://www.un.org/News/ Press/docs/2002/sc7490.doc.htm. See also Case T-318/01, Othman v. Council, 2002 O.J. (C 68) 13 (challenging the EU Regulations relating to dealings with the Taliban and Afghanistan). /http://www.un.org/News/ Press/docs/2002/sc7490.doc.htm.

12 For example, a U.S. Court of Appeals held in United States v. Decker, 600 F.2d 733 (9th Cir. 1979), that U.S. fishing regulations issued pursuant to the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Convention were subject to judicial review, in the special context of a criminal prosecution under the regulations.

13 On the impact of pressure from Italian courts, and from a select committee of the U.K. House of Lords, on procedural reforms in the European Commission's conduct of competition law proceedings, see Francesca Bignami,Creating Rights in the Age of Global Governance: Mental Maps and Strategic Interests in Europe, 11 C olum . J. Eur . L. (2005 ).

14 Useful sources include Giacinto Della Cananea, Beyond the State: The Europeanization and Globalization of Procedural Administrative Law, 9 Eur . Pub . L. 563 (2003); Sabino Cassese, European Administrative Proceedings, 68 Law & Contemp. Probs . (forthcoming 2005); Sabino Cassese, Global Standards for National Administrative Procedure, id.; Eduardo Chiti, Administrative Proceedings Involving European Agencies, id.; Richard Stewart, U.S.Administrative Law: A Model for Global Administrative Law?, id.

15 For NGO perspectives on several cases considered by the Inspection Panel, see Demanding Accountability :Civil Society Claims an d the World Bank Inspection Panel (Dana Clark et. al. eds., 2003).

16 Jus gentium can mean many different things. The reference here is to the conception found in H ug o G rot ius ,De Jure Belli ac P acis (1625). See generally Benedict Kingsbury, A Grotian Tradition of Theory and Practice?:Grotius, Law, and Moral Skepticism in the Thought ofHedley Bull, 17 QUINNIPIAC L. REV . 3, 11-18 (1997).

17 See Kingsbury, Benedict, Legal Positivism as Normative Politics: International Society, Balance of Power and Lassa Oppenheim 's Positive International Law, in EAST ASIAN AND EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVES ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 139-77 (Michael Stolleis & Masaharu Yanagihara eds., 2003).

18 WTO Appellate Body Report on United States—Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products, AB-1998-4, WT/DS58/AB/R at ¶180 (Oct. 12, 1998).

19 Revised Guidelines for the Implementation of Section 609 of Public Law 101-162 Relating to the Protection of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Trawl Fishing Operations, 64 Fed. Reg. 36,946 (July 8, 1999). Whether and to what extent these amendments were directly connected with proceedings in the WTO is contested.

20 WTO Appellate Body Report on United States—Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Prftfaucts— Recourse to Article 21.5 of the DSU by Malaysia, AB-2001-4, WT/DS58/AB/RW (Oct. 22, 2001).

21 THE THIRD WORLD AND INTERNATIONAL ORDER:LAW,POLITICS,AND GLOBALIZATION (Antony Anghie et al. eds., 2003); Chimni, B.S.,International Institutions Today: An Imperial Global State in the Making, 15 EUR . J. INT'L L . 1 (2004); Anne Orford, The Gift of Formalism, 15 EUR.J.INT'L L . 179 (2004).

22 For an explanation of these English School categories as used here, see, e.g., HedleyBullonInternational Society(Kai Alderson & Andrew Hurrell eds., 2000); Hurrell, Andrew,International Law and the Making and Unmaking of Boundaries, IN STATES , NATIONS , AND BORDERS 275 (Allen Buchanan & Margaret Moore eds., 2003); Kingsbury, Benedict,People and Boundaries: An ‘Internationalized Public Law’ Approach, IN STATES , NATIONS , AN D BORDERS, SUPRA, AT 298.

23 Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Congo v. Belg.), 2002 ICJ Rep .3 (Feb. 14) (separate opinion of President Guillaume at f 15).

24 Compare Fraser, Nancy ,>Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy, IN HABERMAS AND THE PUBLIC SPHERE 109 (Craig Calhoun ed., 1992) for debates on the argument for a multiplicity of publics.

25 See Decision of the Council Concerning the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the Assessment of Chemicals, OECD Doc. C(81)30/Final (May 12, 1981), at http://webdominol.oecd.org/horizontal/oecdacts.nsf/Display/ 99D86B3906ADFD4FO2570080059A0B9?openDocument (last visited May 21, 2005); OECD Test Guidelines and Principles of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), id. at Annexes I-II; Decision-Recommendation of the Council on Compliance with Principles of Good Laboratory Practice, OECD Doc. C(89)87/Final (Oct. 2, 1989), at http://webdominol.oecd.org/horizontal/oecdacts.nsf/Display/93458AElB15342D9C1257008005A31337open Document (last visited May 21, 2005); Council Decision Concerning the Adherence of Non-Member Countries to the Council Acts Related to the Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals, OECD Doc. C(97)l 14/ Final (Nov. 26, 1997), at http://www.olis.oecd.org/olis/1997doc.nsf/43bb6130e5e86e5fcl2569fa005d004c/ 5b3386d803b995be80256598003a749e/$FILE/QlE88527.DOC (last visited May 21, 2005).

26 Hugo Grotius,De Jure Belli ac PacisI.l.xii(1646 ed.) (arguing for a focus on the practice not necessarily of all nations, but of those nations “more advanced in civilization” or “ in a sound condition.” ).

27 Ruggie, John , Taking Embedded Liberalism Global: The Corporate Connection, in Taming Globalization: Frontiers of Governance 93 (David Held & Mathias Koenig-Archibugi eds., 2003).

28 Morgan, Bronwen, Social Protest against Privatization of Water, in Susta inable D ev elo pment Law : Principles,Practices and Pros pects (Marie-Claire Cordonier Segger & Ashfaq Khalfan eds., 1st ed., 2004).

29 Aguas del Tunari S.A. v. Republic of Bolivia, ICSID Case No. ARB/02/3. See Letter from David Caron, President of the Tribunal, to Martin Wagner, Earthjustice International Program (Jan. 29, 2003), available at http://www.law.berkeley.edu/faculty/ddcaron/Documents/ICSID%20Arbitrations/ARB-02-3_NGO_Petition_ ICSID_Response_2003.pdf (last visited May 20, 2005).

30 See Grant, Ruth & Keohane, Robert , Accountability and Abuses of Power in World Politics, 99 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev . 29 (2005).

* Murry and Ida Becker Professor of Law, Director, Institute for International Law and Justice, New York University Law School. The research was supported by the Filomen d’Agostino and Max E. Greenberg Research Fund at NYU Law School. For a longer version of these remarks, see Benedict Kingsbury, Omnilateralism and Partial International Communities: Contributions of the Emerging Global Administrative Law, 104 J. Int 'l Law & Dipl . 98 (forthcoming 2005 ). The discussion of global administrative law here draws heavily on joint work with Richard B. Stewart, and with Nico Krisch and others, in the NYU Law School Institute for International Law and Justice's research project on global administrative law. For a series of working papers and an extensive bibliography see the project website, at http://www.iilj.org (last visited May 17, 2005 ). One set of papers from this project appears in 68 Law & Contemp . Probs .(Summer/Autumn 2005 ).

Lecture by Benedict Kingsbury

  • Benedict Kingsbury

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