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International Law and the Development Encounter: Violence and Resistance at the Margins

  • Balakrishnan Rajagopal (a1)


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1 Wolfgang Friedmann, The Changing Structure of International Law (1964). See also B.V.A. Roling, International Law in an Expanded World (1960).

2 Even the recent upsurge in the discussion of the role of NGOs and “civil society” in international relations, remains a dialogue of elites, overlooking the praxis of grassroots movements.

3 Harry S. Truman, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States: Harry S. Truman (1964) cited in Arturo Escobar, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World 3 ( 1995).

4 I borrow this term from Ashis Nandy, The Intimate Enemy: The Loss and Recovery of Self Under Colonialism (1983).

5 See Kunz, J., Pluralism of Legal and Value Systems and International Law, 49 AJIL 370 (1955); Wilfred Jenks, The Common Law of Mankind ch. 2 (1958); McDougal, Myres S. & Lasswell, Harold D., The Identification and Appraisal of Diverse Systems of Public Order, 53 AJIL 1 (1959).

6 See Berman, Nathaniel, Modernism, Nationalism, and the Rhetoric of Reconstruction, 4(2) Yale J.L. & Human. 351 (1992).

7 Wilfred Jenks, The Common Law of Mankind 80 (1958).

8 Much of the immediate post-WWII scholarship in the U.S. was in this vein, discussing how the entry of “new” countries called forth a “new” international law. See, e.g., McWhinney, Edward, The “New” Countries and the “New “ International Law: The United Nations Special Conference on Friendly Relations and Co-Operation Among States, 60 AJIL 1 (Jan. 1966); Fenwick, Charles, International Law: The Old and the New, 60 AJIL 475 (July 1966).

9 This usually took the form of the argument that non-Western cultures had also “contributed” to international law, historically. See, e.g., Chacko, C.J., India’s Contribution to the Field of International Law Concepts, 93 Recueil Des Cours 117 (1958-1).

10 Much of the rest of the Third World scholarship falls into this category. For a sampling, see Frederick Snyder & Surakiart Sathirathai, Third World Attitudes Towards International Law (1987).

11 General Assembly Resolution 3201 (S-VI), Preamble.

12 Lummis, Douglas, Equality, in The Development Dictionary 44 (Sachs, Wolfgang ed., 1992).

1 J.M. Keynes, The Economic Consequences of the Peace 10 (1920), cited in Murphy, Craig & Augelli, Enrico, International Institutions, Decolonization and Development, 14 Int’l Pol. Sci. Rev. 71 (1993).

14 The literature on this is voluminous, but for an analysis that is relevant to the arguments developed here, see Farrokh Jhabvala, On Human Rights and the Socio-Economic Context, in Snyder & Sathirathai, supra note 10

15 Richard Ashley, The Political Economy of War and Peace 14 (1980).

16 Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish 222 (1979).

17 Drago, Luis, State Loans in the Relation to International Policy, 1 AJIL 692 (1907).

18 See, e.g., Henry Steiner and Philip Alston, International Human Rights in Context: Law, Politics, Morals 59 (1996).

19 Lassa Oppenheim, International Law: Treatise (8th ed., i960).

20 Guha-Roy, S.N., Is the Law of Responsibility of States for Injuries to Aliens a Part of Universal International Law? 55 AJIL 863 (1961) (citing Philip Jessup, A Modern Law of Nations 101 (1948)).

21 See Samuel Bowles & Herbert Gintis, Democracy and Capitalism: Property, Community and the Contradictions of Modern Social Thought 8 (1986).

22 Id. One exception to the traditional nationalist orientation toward Western-style development was M.K.. Gandhi, who clearly understood that true liberation from colonial rule meant recovering the selves that had been lost, through a cultural and political struggle. This meant that Western-style industrial development was inappropriate as a nation-building strategy. For this argument, see Gandhi, M. K., Hind Swaraj, in Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi vol. 4, 81208 (1963).

23 Hannah Arendt, on Violence 4 (1970).

24 This is partly because it takes confrontation outside the law to make law itself, as pointed out by David Apter. See Apter, David, Political Violence in Analytical Perspective, in The Legitimation of Violence 3 (Apter, David ed., 1997).

25 Ashis Nandy, State, in The Development Dictionary, supra note 12, at 269.

26 See Franz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (preface by Jean-Paul Sartre, 1963) at 11.

27 A point made by Hannah Arendt, supra note 23, at 11.

28 For some representative works, see Hersch Lauterpacht, Human Rights in International Law (1950); Philip Jessup, A Modern Law of Nations; Wolfgang Friedmann, supra note 1, ch. 4; Wilfred Jenks, supra note 7; Kunz, Josef, The Changing Law of Nations, 51 AJIL 77 (Jan. 1957). See also, McDougal, Myers, Larrwell, Harold, Chen, Lung-chu, Human Rights and World Public Order: A Framework for Policy-Oriented Inquiry 63 AJIL 237 (Apr. 1969).

29 See Jhab vaia, supra note 14, at 296. For an extended philosophical position, see Henry Shue, Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence and U.S. Foreign Policy (2d., 1996).

30 Id. passim.

31 I have borrowed the termpluriverse from Gustavo Esteva & Madhu Suri Prakash, Grassroots Postmodernism: Remaking the Soil of Cultures (1998).

32 See Bowles & Gintis, supra note 21, passim.

33 See Gustavo Esteva, Development, in The Development Dictionary, supra note 12, at 19.

34 Marshall Sahlins, Stone Age Economics (1972).

35 Jenks, supra note 7, ch. 5.

36 W. at 243.

37 Id. at 232-37.

38 Id. at 246 and 248.

39 For an argument that the ILO played a crucial role in helping to raise labor standards in Japan during the interwar years, see Murphy & Augelli, supra note 13, at 77.

40 See the works cited by Jenks, supra note 7, at 255.

41 ld. at 287.

42 For the argument that the market system emerged as a result of deliberate and often violent interventions by the state, see Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation (1944).

43 For an incisive and detailed analysis of the colonial origins of emergency, see Frank Füredi, Colonial Wars and the Politics of Third World Nationalism ch. 1 (1994).

44 See Manfred Nowak, Un Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: CCPR Commentary 76-77 (1993).

45 See the numerous and detailed reports of the UN Special Rapporteur, L. Despouy, on this subject. See, e.g., E/CN.4/SUB.2/1992/23/Rev.l.

46 See Jürgen Habermar, The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society (1989).

47 One notable exception to this rule is Falk, Richard, The Global Promise of Social Movements: Explorations at the Edge of Time, 12 Alternatives 173 (1987). For a sympathetic presentation of social movements from a critical development perspective, see Banuri, Tariq, Development and the Politics of Knowledge: A Critical Interpretation of the Social Role of Modernization Theories in the Development of the Third World, at 2972 in Dominating Knowledge (Marglin, Frederique & Marglin, Stephen eds., 1990). The literature on social movements is voluminous. See e.g., Anthony Oberschall, Social Movements: Ideologies, Interests and Identities (1993); Sidney Tarrow, Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action and Politics (1994); Klaus Eder, The New Politics of Class: Social Movements and Cultural Dynamics in Advanced Societies (1993); Alain Touraine, Return of the Actor: Social Theory in Post-Industrial Society (1988); New Social Movements and the State in Latin America (Slater Ed., 1985); New Social Movements in the South (Poona Wignaraja Ed., 1993); The Making of Social Movements in Latin America (Arturo Escobar and Sonia Alvarez, eds., 1992).

48 Franck, Thomas, Postmodern Tribalism and the Right to Secession, in Peoples and Minorities in International Law (Brolman, Catherine, Lefeber, Rene & Zieck, Marjoleine eds., 1993).

49 Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism 253 (1993).

50 Chimni, B.S., Review Article: The Principle of Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources: Toward a Radical Interpretation, 38 Ind. J. Int’l L. 208, 217 (1998).

* Formerly with the UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAL) and the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights in Cambodia. Human Rights Officer, 1992-1996. I thank David Kennedy and the editorial staff at the ASIL, for comments on an earlier draft.

International Law and the Development Encounter: Violence and Resistance at the Margins

  • Balakrishnan Rajagopal (a1)


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