This paper illustrates the development of Primary Health Care (PHC) public sector in Malaysia, through a series of health reforms in addressing equitable access. Malaysia was a signatory to the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978. The opportunity provided the impetus to expand the Rural Health Services of the 1960s, guided by the principles of PHC which attempts to address the urban–rural divide to improve equity and accessibility. The review was made through several collation of literature searches from published and unpublished research papers, the Ministry of Health annual reports, the 5-year Malaysia Plans, National Statistics Department, on health systems programme and infrastructure developments in Malaysia. The Public Primary Care Health System has evolved progressively through five phases of organisational reforms and physical restructuring. It responded to growing needs over a 40-year period since the Alma Ata Declaration in 1978, keeping equity, accessibility, efficiency and universal health coverage consistently in the backdrop. There were improvements of maternal, infant mortality rates as well as accessibility to health services for the population. The PHC Reforms in Malaysia are the result of structured and strategic investment. However, there will be continuing dilemma between cost-effectiveness and equity. Hence, continuous efforts are required to look at opportunity costs of alternative strategies to provide the best available solution given the available resources and capacities. While recognising that health systems development is complex with several layers and influencing factors, this paper focuses on a small but crucial aspect that occupies much time and energies of front-line managers in the health.