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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has tremendous morbidity burden owing to disease management and complication prevention. Behavior modification identified as a key to management includes healthy diet and regular physical activity (PA). This study aims to identify patterns and preferences of PA of T2D patients and explore perceived enablers and barriers for diabetes control in Bhubaneswar.
Cross-sectional, facility-based study conducted in the private sector from June to August 2014 recruited 321 T2D patients using semi-structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and associations of PA were computed.
Almost two-thirds of patients (59%) were reported performing PA frequently. Majority patients cited walking as the most preferred mode of PA (79%) with 41% performing PA daily. Actual versus perceived weight was a complete mismatch with most patients misjudging their weight. Reasons for enabling PA included ‘controlling diabetes’ and ‘doctor’s advice’ as key factors, while ‘lack of time’ and ‘unwillingness’ were main barriers among inactive patients.
Counseling on PA by physicians during routine visits, along with tailored or patient-specific interventions should be considered. Focus on social support for positive behavioral changes and motivation play a central role in diabetes control.
Ghana in 1999 adopted the Community-based Health Planning and Service (CHPS) policy to enhance access to primary health care (PHC) service. After two decades of implementation, there remains a considerable proportion of the country’s population, especially women who lack access to basic health care services.
The aim of this paper is to understand the contribution of Ghana’s CHPS policy to women’s access to PHC services in the Upper West Region (UWR) of Ghana.
A logistic regression technique was employed to analyse cross-sectional data collected among women (805) from the UWR.
We found that women who resided in CHPS zones (OR = 1.612; P ≤ 0.01) were more likely to have access to health care compared with their counterparts who resided in non-CHPS zones. Also, rural-urban residence, distance to health facility, household wealth status and marital status predicted access to health care among women in the region. Our findings underscore the need to expand the CHPS policy to cover many areas in the country, especially rural communities and other deprived localities in urban settings.
The aim of the study was to explore the care-seeking pathway of rural women living with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and attending a tertiary health-care facility in Odisha, India.
RA is the third leading chronic health condition and causes severe pain and immense psychosocial stress. The prevalence of RA is three to four times higher in women than in men. Furthermore, in India, women delay care seeking due to the prevailing sociocultural norms. Women report more severe symptoms and greater disability; however, there is a lack of information on their care-seeking pathways.
We conducted 113 in-depth interviews among RA patients those who visited specialists at the outpatients’ Department of Rheumatology, SCB Medical College Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Cuttack, Odisha, India. The grounded theory approaches were used for data analysis.
The key findings included physical pain and psychosocial stress in relation to RA, cultural issues in relation to RA, mapping of the health-care providers for RA, the first point of cares and changes in care-seeking pathways, the perceived challenge for seeking health-care, and coping strategies of patients and social supports. This study explored that the RA patients seek care from multiple providers – untrained, trained and specialist without any gatekeeping. However, the primary health centers were the first point of care for maximum patients due to accessibility and affordability. Furthermore, follow-up care is significant to prevent complication among RA patients; the primary health centers are the gateway for keeping RA patients. Hence, the availability of RA trained providers at primary health center including interprofessional care, such as physiotherapy providers, and proper referral system is essential to convalesce care-seeking pathways.
This study assessed the diagnosis, treatment and referral service provided by untrained providers for sick infants.
In rural India, lack of trained providers causes inopportune treatment of sick infants and results in increase in child morbidity and mortality. The untrained providers deliver a significant proportion of health care for rural infants; however, there is a paucity of information on their treatment practice.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in three rural blocks of Odisha. A total of 337 prescriptions recommended for sick infants were collected from the 15 untrained providers using pre-designed prescription form – designed as per the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) guideline. The forms were collected through the periodic visit and regular follow-up to the providers.
A total of 68% of infants were diagnosed with the possible serious bacterial infection, 56% fever, 10% feeding problems, 9% dysentery and 9% local bacterial infection. A total of 61% of sick infants prescribed antibiotics – cephalosporin was commonly prescribed (56%). Among severe persistent diarrhea-diagnosed infants, 76% prescribed oral rehydration salt (ORS), 48% zinc and 62% of them received various antibiotics. The untrained providers referred 23% of sick infants to trained providers/facilities. In rural settings, most of the sick infants sought care from untrained providers; however, none of them followed any standard treatment protocol. This study suggests there is a need for training on common disease algorithm and treatment using a standard guideline for untrained providers to reduce inopportuneness in the treatment of sick infants, promoting early diagnosis and referral services to public health systems.
This study attempts to strike a balance to measure primary care quality in a way that considers what is important to patients, providers and the healthcare system, all at the same time.
The interest in delivering patient-centered primary care implies a need for patient-centered performance measurement. However, the distinction between measures of patient experience and technical aspects of care raises an unanswerable question: if a provider has good performance on technical measures but not on patient experience measures (or vice versa), what can be said about the quality of care?
We surveyed patients to determine the relative priorities of each of a series of primary care measures in the patients’ relationship with their primary care provider. The on-line survey was co-designed with patient co-investigators. The items consisted of 14 primary care quality measures used in pre-existing performance report, 41 additional indicators including a novel set of patient-generated Key Performance Indicators and 17 questions about patients’ demographics, health and socioeconomic status as well as open-ended questions.
Despite challenges, the study suggests that this is feasible. We argue that it is necessary to get better at measuring and finding ever-better ways to put patients at the center of primary care
Stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) remain leading causes of mortality and morbidity globally. Although mortality rates have been in decline, the number of people affected by stroke has risen. These patients have a range of long-term needs and often present to primary care. Furthermore, many of these patients have multimorbidities which increase the complexity of their healthcare. Long-term impacts from stroke/TIA along with care needs for other morbidities can be challenging to address because care can involve different healthcare professionals, both specialist and generalist. In the ideal model of care, such professionals would work collaboratively to provide care. Despite the commonality of multimorbidity in stroke/TIA, gaps in the literature remain, particularly limited knowledge of pairings or clusters of comorbid conditions and the extent to which these are interrelated. Moreover, integrated care practices are less well understood and remain variable in practice. This article argues that it is important to understand (through research) patterns of multimorbidity, including number, common clusters and types of comorbidities, and current interprofessional practice to inform future directions to improve long-term care.
The 40th anniversary of the World Health Organization Alma-Ata Declaration in Astana offered the impetus to discuss the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC) has been successfully implemented and its impact on research and practice. This paper focuses on the experiences from Greece in implementing primary health care reform and lessons learned from the conduct of evidence-based research. It critically examines what appears to be impeding the effective implementation of integrated PHC in a country affected by the financial and refugee crisis. The key challenges for establishing integrated people-centred primary care include availability of family physicians, information and communication technology, the prevention and management of chronic disease and migrant and refugees’ health. Policy recommendations are formulated to guide the primary health care reform in Greece, while attempting to inform efforts in other countries with similar conditions.
There is a need for multiprofessional comprehensive studies to better understand the relationship between design and provision of primary care and long-term care and health outcomes. The PRIMORE (PRImary care MultiprOfessional REsearcher network) project aims at bringing together researchers with different backgrounds and from a wide range of professional groups within the fields of primary care research and long-term care research to develop and share knowledge for the benefit of research on municipal health and care services, and eventually, the quality of municipal health and care in Europe. Main activities of the project will be network development, capacity building, providing a platform where multiprofessional primary care research activities can take place and publishing position papers.