Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Primary health care workers’ understanding and skills related to cervical cancer prevention in Sango PHC centre in south-western Nigeria: a qualitative study

  • Anthonia O. C. Onyenwenyi (a1) (a2) and Gugu Gladness Mchunu (a1)

Abstract

Aim:

The study explored the knowledge and service delivery skills of primary health care (PHC) workers to conduct cervical cancer screening programmes in Sango primary health centre in Sango town, Ado-Odo Ota, Ogun State in Nigeria.

Background:

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women. The prevention and control services in Nigeria are provided mainly at post-primary health facilities. Authorities have advocated the integration of cervical cancer prevention into reproductive health services provided at PHC centres. The service delivery capabilities of PHC workers are critical for successful implementation of screening programmes.

Method:

Exploratory qualitative research design was used. Data were collected among 10 PHC workers who were purposively sampled at Sango PHC. Semi-structured interview guide with broad items and a checklist were used to assess participants’ cervical cancer screening knowledge and service delivery skills using visual inspection screening methods. Data were analysed thematically and triangulated.

Findings:

A range of roles were represented in the interviews of the health care workers at the PHC studied. They had poor knowledge and skills about cervical cancer screening using visual inspection with acetic acid and visual inspection with Lugol’s iodine. Study participants perceived nurses as most equipped PHC workers to conduct screening at PHC level, followed by the community health officers. Participants reported no cervical cancer services at the centre and community. The findings provided useful insight that guided the training of primary health workers and the development of a community-based cervical cancer screening model for women in rural communities.

Conclusion:

Nurses and other PHC workers should be trained on visual inspection screening method. This low-cost but effective methodology could be incorporated into their training curricula as a strategy for scaling up cervical cancer prevention programmes across Nigeria.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Primary health care workers’ understanding and skills related to cervical cancer prevention in Sango PHC centre in south-western Nigeria: a qualitative study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Primary health care workers’ understanding and skills related to cervical cancer prevention in Sango PHC centre in south-western Nigeria: a qualitative study
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Primary health care workers’ understanding and skills related to cervical cancer prevention in Sango PHC centre in south-western Nigeria: a qualitative study
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Anthonia O. C. Onyenwenyi, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Desmond Clarence Building, 5th Floor, Durban 4001, South Africa. Tel: + 2348033013629. E-mail: oguoguo2001@yahoo.com

References

Hide All
Adefuyea, PO, Broutet, NJ, de Sanjoséc, S and Dennye, LA (2013) Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccine 31S, F53–F59 journal homepage. www.elsevier.com/locate/vaccine
Agurto, I, Arrossi, S, White, S, Coffey, P, Dzuba, I, Bingham, A, Bradley, J and Lewis, R (2005) Involving the community in cervical cancer prevention programs. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 89, S38S45.
Albert, SO, Oguntayo, OA, Samaila, MOA (2012) Comparative study of VIA and Papanicolai (Pap) smear for cervical cancer screening. Ecancermedicalscience. Retrieved 5 October 2017. doi: 10.3332/ecancer.2012.262 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0).
Alujuwaihel, A, Al-Jarallah, A, Al-Busairi, H and El-Shazly, MK (2013) Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer vaccines among PHC physicians in Kuwait. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences 3, 152159.
Anorlu, RI (2008) Cervical cancer: the sub-Saharan African perspective. Reproductive Health Matters 16, 4149.
Anorlu, RI, Orakwue, CO, Oyeneyin, L and Abudu, OO (2004) Late presentation of patients with cervical cancer to a tertiary hospital in Lagos: what is responsible? European Journal of Gynaecological Oncology 25, 729732.
Anyinde, OA and Onugbodun, AO (2003) Knowledge attitude and practices related to prevention of cancer of cervix among female health workers in Ibadan. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 23, 5962.
Arulogun, OS and Maxwell, OO (2012) Perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal 11, 69.
Balarabe, F, Musa, U, Chado, MA, Garba, SN and Musa, HA (2014) Awareness of VIA in cervical cancer screening among nurses in Kaduna state – Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Nursing & Health Science 3, 5661.
Balogun, MR, Odukoya, OO, Oyediran, MA and Ujomu, PI (2012) Cervical cancer awareness and preventive practices: a challenge for female urban slum dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health 16, 7582.
Blumenthal, PD, Lauterbach, M, Sellors, JW and Sankaranarayanan, R (2005) Training for cervical cancer prevention programs in low‐resource settings: Focus on visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 89, S30S37.
Braun, V and Clarke, V (2006, Jan 1) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3, 77101.
Can, H, Erdem, O, Oztekin, C, Celik, SB, Onde, M, Celepkolu, T and Ongel, K (2014) Are primary health care workers aware of cervical cancer risk? Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention 15, 66696671.
Carter, N, Bryant-Lukosius, D, Di Censo, A and Neville, AJ (2014) The use of triangulation in qualitative research. Oncology Nursing Forum 41, 545547.
Catarino, R, Vassilakos, P, Scaringella, S, Undurraga-Malinverno, M, Meyer-Hamme, U, Ricard-Gauthier, D, Matute, JC and Petignat, P (2015) Smartphone use for cervical cancer screening in low-resource countries: a pilot study conducted in Madagascar. PloS One 10, e0134309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134309.
Community Health Practitioners’ Registration Board of Nigeria (2006) Curriculum for higher diploma in community health. Reproductive Health, Abuja, Nigeria. pp. 5156.
Denny, L, Quinn, M and Sankaranarayanan, R (2006, Aug 21) Screening for cervical cancer in developing countries. Vaccine 24, S71S77.
Denzin, NK (1978) The research act: a theoretical introduction to sociological methods, second edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Department of information, education and sports Ado Odo/Ota local Government (2014) Assessment of Ado-Odo/Ota local government. pp. 13–14.
Dubale, D, Daka, D and Wakgari, N (2017) Knowledge about cervical cancer screening and its practice among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Women's Health 9, 365372. doi: 10.2147/IJWH.S132202.
Ebu, NI, Mupepi, SC, Siakwa, MP and Sampselle, CM (2015) Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana. International Journal of Women’s Health 7, 3139.
Ehiemere, IO, Frank, MD and Robinson-Bassey, GC (2015) Attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among female health workers in University of Port-Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State. Journal of Research in Nursing and Midwifery 4, 7282.
Eke, NO, Eke, CO, Nwosu, BO, Akabuike, JC, Ezeigwe, CO and Okoye, SC (2012) Cervical cancer screening by female workers in South East Nigeria. Afrimedic Journal 3, 1115.
Eyitayo, L (2015, Dec 8) Primary health care realities, challenges and the way forward. 1st annual primary health care lecture: organised by the National Primary Health Care Development Agency Abuja. Retrieved 4 August 2017 from http://nigeriahealthwatch.com/wp-content/uploads/bsk-pdf-manager/1160_2015_Primary_Health_Care_Presentation_Final,_NPHCDA_1216.pdf
Ezechi, OC, Gab-Okafor, CV, Ostergren, PO and Pettersson, KO (2013) Willingness and acceptability of cervical cancer screening among HIV positive Nigerian women. BMC Public Health 13, 46.
Fatungase, OK, Olu-Abiodun, OO, Idowu-Ajiboye, BA and Awosile, JO (2013) An assessment of women’s awareness and knowledge about cervical cancer and screening and the barriers to cervical screening in Ogun State, Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 10, 5258.
Federal Ministry of Health; National Primary Health Care Development Agency (2012) Minimum standard for primary health care in Nigeria. Department of Planning, Research and Statistics. Ch 5 Primary Health Care Centre. Retrieved 20 September 2018. doi: 10.1002/ijc.25516
Ferlay, J, Shin, HR, Bray, F, Forman, D, Mathers, C and Parkin, DM (2010) Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GlOBOCAN 2008. International Journal of Cancer 127, 28932917.
Ferlay, J, Soerjomataram, I, Ervik, M, Dikshit, R, Eser, S, Mathers, C, Rebelo, M, Parkin, DM, Forman, D, and Bray, F (2012) Globocan. 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC Cancer Base No. 11. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Finocchario-Kessler, S, Wexler, C, Maloba, M, Mabachi, N, Ndikum-Moffor, F and Bukusi, E (2016) Cervical cancer prevention and treatment research in Africa: a systematic review from a public health perspective. BMC Women’s Health 16, 29.
Guest, G, Bunce, A and Johnson, L (2006) How many interviews are enough? An experiment with data saturation and variability. Field Methods 18, 5982. doi: 10.1177/1525822X05279903.
Ibama, AS and Dennis, P (2016) Role of community health practitioners in national development: the Nigeria situation. International Journal of Clinical Medicine 7, 511518.
Igwilo, AI, Igwilo, UU, Hassan, F, Idanwekhai, M, Igbinomwanhia, O and Popoola, AO (2012) The knowledge, attitude and practice of the prevention of cancer of the cervix in Okada Community. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences 4, 9598.
Lincoln, YS and Guba, EG (1985) Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills CA: Sage.
Makinde, B, Akinremi, T, Solademi, A, Olaoye, T, Ogunsanmi, O and Dangana, J (2016). Cancer of the cervix and cervical screening: current knowledge, attitude and practice of PHC workers in Ikene LGA Ogun State, Nigeria. IOSR, Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences 5, 6265.
Makuza, JD, Nsanzimana, S, Muhimpundu, MA, Pace, LE, Ntaganira, J and Riedel, DJ (2015) Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda. Pan African Medical Journal 22, doi: 10.11604/pamj.2015.22.26.7116.
McCarey, C, Pirek, D, Tebeu, PM, Boulvain, M, Doh, AS and Petignat, P (2011) Awareness of HPV and cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. BMC Womens Health 18;11, 45. doi: 10.1186/1472-6874-11-45.
McGraw, SL and Ferrante, JM (2014) Update on prevention and screening of cervical cancer. World Journal of Clinical Oncology 5, 744.
Modibbo, FI, Dareng, E, Bamisaye, P, Jedy-Agba, E, Adewole, A, Oyeneyin, L, Olaniyan, O and Adebamowo, C (2016) Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. BMJ Open 6, e008533.
Munga, MA, Kilima, SP, Mutalemwa, PP, Kisoka, WJ and Malecela, MN (2012) Experiences, opportunities and challenges of implementing task shifting in underserved remote settings: the case of Kongwa district, central Tanzania. BMC International Health and Human Rights 12, 2738.
National Population Commission (2006) National Population Census. Abuja, Nigeria: National Population Commission.
Nigeria Demographics Profile (2014). Retrieved 24 June 2013 from http//www.indexmundi.com/nigeria/demographics_profile
Olusegun, GE, Oluwaserimi, AA, Akinwumi, AO, Olusegun, BA, Adebayo, AA and Dada, SA (2016) Reliability of visual inspection after acetic acid staining in screening for cervical pre-malignant lesion among female subjects in a Rural Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Cancer Research Journal 4, 18. doi: 10.11648/j.crj.20160401.11.
Omole-Ohonsi, A, Aiyedun, TA and Umoru, JU (2013) Diagnostic accuracy of VIA compared to Pap smear cytology in detecting premalignant lesions of the cervix. African Journal of Medical and Health Sciences 12, 25.
Pattons, M (1990) Qualitative evaluation and research methods, second edition. Newbury Park CA: Sage.
Poli, UR, Bidinger, PD and Gowrishankar, S (2015) Visual inspection with acetic acid (via) screening program: 7 years’ experience in early detection of cervical cancer and pre-cancers in rural South India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine: Official Publication of Indian Association of Preventive & Social Medicine 40, 203.
Sankaranarayanan, R (2014) Screening for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income countries Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Annals of Global Health 80, 412417. doi:10.1016/j.aogh.2014.09.014.
Saunders, B, Sim, J, Kingstone, T, Baker, S, Waterfield, J, Bartlam, B, Burroughs, H and Jinks, C. (2018) Saturation in qualitative research: exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality & Quantity 52(4), 18931907. doi:10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8
Shastri, SS, Mittra, I, Mishra, GA, Gupta, S, Dikshit, R, Singh, S and Badwe, RA (2014) Effect of VIA screening by primary health workers: randomized controlled study in Mumbai, India. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 106, dju009.
Shenton, AK (2004) Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information 22, 6375.
Singh, E, Seth, S, Rani, V and Srivastava, DK (2012) Awareness of cervical cancer screening among nursing staff in a tertiary institution of rural India. Journal of Gynecologic Oncology 23, 141146.
World Health Organization (2009) Cervical cancer prevention pilot project in 6 African countries. Antananarivo: Madagascar Blantyre: Malawi Lusaka: Zambia Masaka: Uganda Peramiho/Moshi; Tanzania. Sagamu: Nigeria.
World Health Organization (2012) Prevention of cervical cancer through screening using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and treatment with cryotherapy.
World Health Organization GLOBOCAN (2008) Global cancer facts and figure, second edition. Lyon Cedex, France: GLOBACAN.
World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer, GLOBOCAN (2012) Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012.
World Health Organization (WHO) (2006) The world health report 2006; working together for health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Retrieved 29 September 2018 from http//www.who.int/whr/2006
World Health Organization (WHO) (2014) International Agency for Research on Cancer. In Stewart, BW and Wild, CP, editors, World cancer report. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
World Health Organization (WHO), International Agency for Research on Cancer, GLOBOCAN (2012) Estimated cancer incidence, mortality and prevalence worldwide in 2012.
Zahedi, L, Sizemore, E, Malcolm, S, Grossniklaus, E and Nwosu, O (2014) Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11, 1154111552.

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Onyenwenyi and Mchunu supplementary material
Onyenwenyi and Mchunu supplementary material 1

 Word (19 KB)
19 KB

Primary health care workers’ understanding and skills related to cervical cancer prevention in Sango PHC centre in south-western Nigeria: a qualitative study

  • Anthonia O. C. Onyenwenyi (a1) (a2) and Gugu Gladness Mchunu (a1)

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed