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The Public Health Consequences of Disasters

  • Eric K. Noji (a1)

Abstract

Although disasters have exacted a heavy toll of death and suffering, the future seems more frightening. Good disaster management must link data collection and analysis to the decision-making process. The overall objectives of disaster management from the viewpoint of public health are: 1) needs assessments; 2) matching available resources with defined needs; 3) prevention of further adverse health effects; 4) implementation of disease-control strategies; 5) evaluation of the effectiveness of the application of these strategies; and 6) improvement in contingency planning for future disasters.

The effects of sudden-onset, natural disasters on humans are quantifiable. Knowledge of the epidemiology of deaths, injuries, and illnesses is essential to determine effective responses; provide public education; establish priorities, planning, and training. In addition, the temporal patterns for the medical care required must be established so that the needs in future disasters can be anticipated.

This article discusses: 1) the nature of disasters due to sudden-onset, natural events; 2) the medical and health needs associated with such events and disasters; 3) practical issues of disaster responses; and 4) the advance organization and management of disasters. The discussion also includes: 1) discussions of past problems in disaster management including non-congruence between available supplies and the actual needs of the affected population; 2) information management; 3) needs assessments; 4) public health surveillance; and 5) linking information with decision-making. This discussion is followed by an analysis of what currently is known about the health-care needs during some specific types of sudden-onset, natural disasters: 1) floods; 2) tropical cyclones; 3) tornadoes; 4) volcanic eruptions; and 5) earthquakes. The article concludes with descriptions of some specific public-health problems associated with disasters including epidemics and disposition of corpses.

All natural disasters are unique in that the regions affected have different social, economic, and health backgrounds. But, many similarities exist, and knowledge about these can ensure that the health and emergency medical relief and limited resources are well-managed.

A pesar que los desastres han exigido una pesada carga de sufrimiento y muerte, el future parece ser mas atemorizador. El buen manejo de los dasastres debe unir la recolección y análisis de datos alproceso de toma de decisiones. Los objetivos generales del manejo de los desastres, desde el punto de vista de la salud .pública son 1) evaluación de necesidades, 2) aparear los recursos disponibles con las necesidades definidas, 3) prevenir efectos adversos adicionales sobre is salud, 4) implementar estrategias de control de enfermedades, 5) evaluar la effectividad de la aplicación de estas estrategias y 6) mejorar elplaneamiento de contingencia para desastres futuros.

Los efectos de los desastres naturales de aparición súbita sobre los humanos son cuantificables. El conocimiento de la epidemiologia de las muertes, lesiones, y enfermiedades es esencial para determinar respuestas efectivas, proveer educación pública, establecer prioridades, planificación y capacitación. Además. Se deben establecer los patrones temporales de atención médica requerida de modo que se puedan anticipar las necesidades en desastres futuros.

Este articulo discate 1) la naturaleza de los desastres debidos a eventos naturales de aparicón súbita, 2) las necesidades médicasy de salud asociadas con tales eventos y desastres, 3) aspectos prácticos de respuesta ante desastres, 4) la avanzada organización y manejo de desastres. La .discusión también incluye 1) discusiones de pasados problemas en el manejo de desastres, que incluyen la incongruencia entre los suministros disponibles y las necesidades reales de la pobiación afectada, 2) el manejo de la información, 3) la evaluación de necesidades, 4) la vigilancia de la salud pública, 5) el enlazar la información can la toma de decisiones. Esta discusión es seguida por un análisis de lo que actualinente se conoce sobre las necesidades de atención médica durante algunos tipos específicos do desastres naturales de inicio súbito 1) inundaciones, 2) ciclones tropicales, 3) tornados, 4) erupciones volcánicas y 5) terremotos. El artículo concluye con descripciones de algunos problemas de salud especificos asociados con los desastres incluyendo epidemias y disposición de cadáveres.

Todos los desastres naturales son úinicos en que las regiones afectadas tienen diferentes antecedentes sociales, económicos y de salud. Pero, exiisten muchas similitudes y el conocimiento de éstas puede asegurar que la salud y le ayuda médka y los limitados recursos sean bis manejados.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), Mail Stop C-18, 1600 Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA 30333, E-mail: enoji@cdc.gov

References

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