Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Mass-Gathering Medical Care in Electronic Dance Music Festivals

  • Kathleen M. FitzGibbon (a1), Jose V. Nable (a2), Benjamin Ayd (a3), Benjamin J. Lawner (a4), Angela C. Comer (a5), Richard Lichenstein (a6), Matthew J. Levy (a7), Kevin G. Seaman (a8) and Ian Bussey (a9)...

Abstract

Introduction

Electronic dance music (EDM) festivals represent a unique subset of mass-gathering events with limited guidance through literature or legislation to guide mass-gathering medical care at these events.

Hypothesis/Problem

Electronic dance music festivals pose unique challenges with increased patient encounters and heightened patient acuity under-estimated by current validated casualty predication models.

Methods

This was a retrospective review of three separate EDM festivals with analysis of patient encounters and patient transport rates. Data obtained were inserted into the predictive Arbon and Hartman models to determine estimated patient presentation rate and patient transport rates.

Results

The Arbon model under-predicted the number of patient encounters and the number of patient transports for all three festivals, while the Hartman model under-predicted the number of patient encounters at one festival and over-predicted the number of encounters at the other two festivals. The Hartman model over-predicted patient transport rates for two of the three festivals.

Conclusion

Electronic dance music festivals often involve distinct challenges and current predictive models are inaccurate for planning these events. The formation of a cohesive incident action plan will assist in addressing these challenges and lead to the collection of more uniform data metrics.

FitzGibbon KM , Nable JV , Ayd B , Lawner BJ , Comer AC , Lichenstein R , Levy MJ , Seaman KG , Bussey I . Mass-Gathering Medical Care in Electronic Dance Music Festivals. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(5):563567.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence: Kathleen M. FitzGibbon, MD Department of Emergency Medicine Christiana Care Health Services 4755 Ogletown-Stanton Road, PO Box 6001 Newark, Delaware 19718 USA E-mail: kfitzgibbonmd@gmail.com

Footnotes

Hide All

Conflicts of interest: none

Footnotes

References

Hide All
1. Bogt, TFM Ter, Gabhainn, SN, Simons-Morton, BG, et al. Dance is the new metal: adolescent music preferences and substance use across Europe. Subst Use Misuse. 2012;47(2):130-142.
2. Brown, E, Jarvic, D, Simpson, D. Use of drugs at “raves.” Scott Med J. 1995;40(6):168-171.
3. Arria, A, Yacoubian, G, Fost, E, Wish, E. The pediatric forum: ecstasy use among club rave attendees. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156(3):295-296.
4. Maxwell, JC. Party drugs: properties, prevalence, patterns, and problems. Subst Use Misuse. 2005;40(9-10):1203-1240.
5. Yacoubian, GS, Boyle, C, Harding, C a, Loftus, E a. It’s a rave new world: estimating the prevalence and perceived harm of ecstasy and other drug use among club rave attendees. J Drug Educ. 2003;33(2):187-196.
6. Lenton, S, Boys, A, Norcross, K. Raves, drugs, and experience: drug use by a sample of people who attend raves in Western Australia. Addiction. 1997;92(10):1327-1337.
7. Bahora, M, Sterk, CE, Elifson, KW. Understanding recreational ecstasy use in the United States: a qualitative inquiry. Int J Drug Policy. 2009;20:62-69.
8. Weir, E. Raves: a review of the culture, the drugs, and the prevention of harm. CMAJ. 2000;162(13):1843-1848.
9. Schwartz, RH, Miller, NS. MDMA (ecstasy) and the rave: a review. Pediatrics. 2015;100(4):705-708.
10. Armenian, P, Mamantov, TM, Tsutaoka, BT, et al. Multiple MDMA (ecstasy) overdoses at a rave event: a case series. J Intensive Care Med. 2012;28(4):252-258.
11. Schifano, F. A bitter pill. Overview of ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) related fatalities. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004;173(December 2000):242-248.
12. Henry, JA. Ecstasy and the dance of death Severe reactions are unpredictable. BMJ. 1992;305:6.
13. Kalant, H. The pharmacology and toxicology of “ecstasy” (MDMA) and related drugs. Can Med Assoc J. 2001;165(7):917-928.
14. White, CM. How MDMA’s pharmacology and pharmacokinetics drive desired effects and harms. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014;54(3):245-252.
15. Patel, MM, Belson, MG, Longwater, AB, Olson, KR, Miller, M a. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)-related hyperthermia. J Emerg Med. 2005;29(4):451-454.
16. Vilke, GM, DeBard, ML, Chan, TC, et al. Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDS): defining based on a review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 2012;43(5):897-905.
17. De Lorenzo, R. Mass gathering medicine: a review. Prehosp Disaster Med. 1997;12(1):68-72.
18. Milsten, A, Maguire, B, Bissell, R, Seaman, K. Mass-gathering medical care: a review of the literature. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2002;17(3):151-162.
19. Arbon, P, Bridgewater, FH, Smith, C. Mass gathering medicine: a predictive model for patient presentation and transport rates. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2001;16(3):150-158.
20. Munn, MB, Lund, A, Golby, R, Turris, SA. Observed benefits to on-site medical services during an annual 5-day electronic dance music event with harm reduction services. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(02):228-234.
21. Erickson, TB, Aks, SE, Koenigsberg, M, Bunney, EB, Schurgin, B, Levy, P. Drug use patterns at major rock concert events. Ann Emerg Med. 1996;28(1):22-26.
22. Locoh-Donou, S, Guofen, Y, Welcher, M, Berry, T, O’Connor, RE, Brady, WJ. Mass-gathering medicine: a descriptive analysis of a range of mass-gathering event types. Am J Emerg Med. 2013;31(5):843-846.
23. Lund, A, Turris, SA. Mass-gathering medicine: risks and patient presentations at a 2-Day electronic dance music event. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(3):271-278.
24. Ciottone, G, Biddinger, P, Darling, R, et al. Ciottone’s Disaster Medicine. 2e ed. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015: 970.
25. Hartman, N, Williamson, A, Sojka, B, et al. Predicting resource use at mass gatherings using a simplified stratification scoring model. Am J Emerg Med. 2009;27(3):337-343.

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed