1.Stratton, SJ. The Hennepin Ketamine Study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):457–458.
3.Klein, L, Moore, J, Biros, M. A 20-year review: the use of Exception from Informed Consent and Waiver of Informed Consent in emergency research. Acad Emerg Med. 2018;25(10):1169–1177.
4.Miner, JR, Klein, LR, Cole, JB, Driver, BE, Moore, JC, Ho, JD. The characteristics and prevalence of agitation in an urban county emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;72(4):361–370.
7.Martel, M, Miner, J, Fringer, R, et al. Discontinuation of droperidol for the control of acutely agitated out-of-hospital patients. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2005;9(1):44–48.
8.Cole, JB, Moore, JC, Nystrom, PC, et al. A prospective study of ketamine versus haloperidol for severe prehospital agitation. Clin Toxicol . 2016;54(7):556–562.
9.Miner, JR, Heegaard, W, Plummer, D. End-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during procedural sedation. Acad Emerg Med. 2002;9(4):275–280.
10.Malta Hansen, C, Kragholm, K, Dupre, ME, et al. Association of bystander and first-responder efforts and outcomes according to sex: results from the North Carolina HeartRescue Statewide Quality Improvement Initiative. J Am Heart Assoc. 2018;7(18):e009873.
11.Self, WH, Semler, MW, Wanderer, JP, et al. Balanced crystalloids versus saline in noncritically ill adults. N Engl J Med. 2018;378(9):819–828.
12.McCormack, RP, Gallagher, T, Goldfrank, LR, Caplan, AL. Including frequent emergency department users with severe alcohol use disorders in research: assessing capacity. Ann Emerg Med. 2015;65(2):172–177.e1.
13.Martel, ML, Klein, LR, Miner, JR, et al. A brief assessment of capacity to consent instrument in acutely intoxicated emergency department patients. Am J Emerg Med. 2018;36(1):18–23.
14.Cole, JB, Klein, LR, Mullinax, S, Nordstrom, KD, Driver, BE, Wilson, MP. Study enrollment when “pre-consent” is utilized for a randomized trial of two treatments for acute agitation in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med. 2018. E-pub ahead of print.
15.Dickert, NW, Sugarman, J. Ethics and regulatory barriers to research in emergency settings. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;72(4):386–388.
16.Eucker, SA, Barrett, TW, Schriger, DL. Are two drugs better than one for acute agitation? A discussion on black box warnings, waiver of informed consent, and the ethics of enrolling impaired subjects in clinical trials. Ann Emerg Med. 2013;61(1):82–83.
17.Kaji, AH, Schriger, D, Green, S. Looking through the retrospectoscope: reducing bias in emergency medicine chart review studies. Ann Emerg Med. 2014;64(3):292–298.
18.Lowenstein, SR. Medical record reviews in emergency medicine: the blessing and the curse. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;45(4):452–455.
19.Mankowitz, SL, Regenberg, P, Kaldan, J, Cole, JB. Ketamine for rapid sedation of agitated patients in the prehospital and emergency department settings: a systematic review and proportional meta-analysis. J Emerg Med. 2018;55(5):670–681.
20.Buckland, DM, Crowe, RP, Cash, RE, et al. Ketamine in the prehospital environment: a national survey of paramedics in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(1):23–28.
21.Martel, M, Sterzinger, A, Miner, J, Clinton, J, Biros, M. Management of acute undifferentiated agitation in the emergency department: a randomized double-blind trial of droperidol, ziprasidone, and midazolam. Acad Emerg Med. 2005;12(12):1167–1172.
22.Klein, LR, Driver, BE, Miner, JR, et al. Intramuscular Midazolam, Olanzapine, Ziprasidone, or Haloperidol for treating acute agitation in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med. 2018;72(4):374–385.
23.Hick, JL, Smith, SW, Lynch, MT. Metabolic acidosis in restraint-associated cardiac arrest: a case series. Acad Emerg Med. 1999;6(3):239–243.
25.Isenberg, DL, Jacobs, D. Prehospital Agitation and Sedation Trial (PhAST): a randomized control trial of intramuscular haloperidol versus intramuscular midazolam for the sedation of the agitated or violent patient in the prehospital environment. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(5):491–495.
26.Cole, JB, Ho, JD, Biros, MH. Randomizing patients without consent: waiver vs exception from informed consent. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):457–458.