Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Epidemiological Study of Child Casualties of Landmines and Unexploded Ordnances: A National Study from Iran

  • Batool Mousavi (a1), Mohammad Reza Soroush (a1), Mehdi Masoumi (a1), Shahriar Khateri (a1), Ehsan Modirian (a2), Hamid Shokoohi (a3), Mohammad Javad Fatemi (a4), Mohammad Ali Hematti (a1), Mansour Soroush (a1), Mohammad Ghassemi-Broumand (a5), Mehdi Rassafiani (a6), Mostafa Allami (a1), Farshad Nouri (a7), Amir Yavari (a1), Zohreh Ganjparvar (a1), Mojtaba Kamyab (a8) and Seyed Abbas Mirsadeghi (a1)...

Abstract

Background

Despite landmine-risk education programs and extensive demining activities on the Western border of Iran, landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXOs) still cause civilian and child casualties three decades after the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). The objective of this study was to understand the epidemiological patterns and risk factors of injury in child casualties of landmines and UXOs in Western and Southwestern Iran.

Methods

Children who were 18 years old or younger at the time of study and who sustained injuries from landmines and UXOs were identified through a search at the Iranian National Veterans Registry. These children participated in a 5-day gathering. The information on socioeconomic status, health-related issues, quality of life, health care utilization, and clinical profiles concerning the landmine and UXO injuries were collected. The method of data collection consisted of three component surveys: health interview, social survey, and medical examinations. Social surveys and health interviews were conducted in a face-to-face method by utilizing a questionnaire consisting of 39 questions addressing household and individual components, including information on time and type of injuries, physical activity, mental health, and quality of life. A comprehensive team of physicians in different subspecialties evaluated and examined children to assess the current medical and psychiatric conditions and physical activity, and recommended and arranged further medical, rehabilitation, or surgical planning.

Results

Seventy-eight child casualties were identified and participated in the study. The mean age of the participants at the time of study was 16.11 years old (SD=2 years). The mean age of victims at the time of injury was 8.2 years (SD=3.12 years; ranged from 2 to 15 years old). Sixty-seven (85.9%) of the children were male. Provinces of Kurdistan and Kermanshah had the highest number of casualties, with a total number of 54 children (68.3%). Eighty percent of the injuries were caused by landmines, and UXO explosions were reported in 20% of the cases. Overall, 24 children (30%) had received some landmine-risk education before or after the events. Sixty percent of the explosions had happened in the morning between 9:00 am and 12:00 pm. Playing and grazing livestock were the most prevalent activities/reasons at the time of injury, which were reported in 77% of the subjects. Sixty-three percent of incidents had multiple casualties and in only 13 explosions were the children the only victims of the explosion. The most prevalent injuries were amputations in 41 subjects (52.56%), followed by hearing loss in 23 subjects (29.5%). Amputations were more common in upper extremities (62%) than in lower extremities (38%).

Conclusion

Landmines and UXOs comprise a significant safety hazard to the children living in the Western border of Iran decades after the Iraq-Iran War. The large number of injuries and lack of risk training among victims suggest that landmine cleanings and landmine-risk education should be age-specifically targeted and expanded substantially.

Mousavi B , Soroush MR , Masoumi M , Khateri S , Modirian E , Shokoohi H , Fatemi MJ , Hematti MA , Soroush M , Ghassemi-Broumand M , Rassafiani M , Allami M , Nouri F , Yavari A , Ganjparvar Z , Kamyab M , Mirsadeghi SA , Epidemiological Study of Child Casualties of Landmines and Unexploded Ordnances: A National Study from Iran. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2015;30(5):472477.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Correspondence: Hamid Shokoohi, MD, MPH, FACEP Department of Emergency Medicine George Washington University Medical Center 2120 L Street, NW, Suite 450 Washington, DC 20037 USA E-mail: hshokoohi@mfa.gwu.edu

References

Hide All
1. Landmine & Cluster Munitions Monitor. International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Toward a mine-free world: Landmine Monitor Report 2004. Geneva, Switzerland; 47-49.
2. The United Nations Children’s Fund. UNICEF Fact Sheet-Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: landmines and explosive weapons. http://www.unicef.org/. Accessed December 22, 2014.
3. Soroush, AR, Falahati, F, Zargar, M, et al. Amputations due to landmine and unexploded ordnances in post-war Iran. Arch Iranian Med. 2008;11(6):595-597.
4. Duttine, A, Hottentot, E. Landmines and explosive remnants of war: a health threat not to be ignored. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2013;91:160-163.
5. Soroush, AR, Falahati, F. The Human Costs of Landmines and UXOs. 1st ed. Tehran, Iran: Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center; 2007: 49.
6. Jang, CH, Yang, HS, Yang, HE, et al. A survey on activities of daily living and occupations of upper extremity amputees. Ann Rehabil Med. 2011;35(6):907-921.
7. Mohamadzadeh, H, Moballeghi, J, Delpisheh, A, et al. Landmine victims in Iran Kurdistan; demographic features & accident characteristics. Pak J Med Sci. 2012;28(1):139-142.
8. Nicolas, E, Wendy, S. Rehabilitation of landmine victims-the ultimate challenge. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2003;81(9):2-9.
9. Ganjparvar, Z, Mousavi, B, Soroush, M, et al. Quality of life among children survivors of land mine and explosive remnants of war. Scientific-Research Journal of Shahed University. 2011-2012;7(96).
10. Mousavi, B, Ganjparvar, Z, Soroush, M, et al. Life satisfaction in children survivors of landmine and unexploded ordnance. Scientific-Research Journal of Shahed University. 2013;107:(21).
11. Asadollahi, R, Saghafinia, M, Nafissi, N, et al. Anxiety, depression, and health-related quality of life in those injured by landmines, Ilam, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16(11):1108-1114.
12. Heshmati, A, Khayyat, NT. Analysis of landmine fatalities and injuries in the Kurdistan Region. J Interpers Violence. October 13, 2014.
13. Landmine & Cluster Munitions Monitor. International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Humanitarian Mine Action Landmine Monitor Fact Sheet, Banning Antipersonnel Mines: A 15-Year Overview of Major Findings 1999–2014. http://www.the-monitor.org/. Accessed December 22, 2014.
14. Landmine & Cluster Munitions Monitor. International Campaign to Ban Landmines. Landmine Monitor 2012: Afghanistan. http://www.the-monitor.org/. Accessed December 22, 2014.
15. Dokhanchi, K. The landmine situation in Iran. The challenge of accession to the Ban Mine Treaty. The Muslim World. 2004;94(4):525-535.
16. Arnson, Y, Bar-Dayan, Y. Reducing landmine mortality rates in Iran using public medical education and rural rescue teams--what can be learned from landmine casualties, and how can the situation be improved? Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009;24(2):130-132.
17. Saghafinia, M, Nafissi, N, Asadollahi, R. Effect of the rural rescue system on reducing the mortality rate of landmine victims: a prospective study in Ilam Province, Iran. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009;24(2):126-129.
18. Landmine & Cluster Munitions Monitor. International Campaign to Ban Landmines. The Online Version of Landmine Monitor Report, 2005: Toward a Mine Free World. http://www.icbl.org/. Accessed December 22, 2014.
19. Bendinelli, C. Effects of land mines and unexploded ordnance on the pediatric population and comparison with adults in Rural Cambodia. World Journal of Surgery. 2009;33(5):1070-1074.
20. Durham, J, Hill, PS, Hoy, D. The underreporting of landmine and explosive remnants of war injuries in Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic and Viet Nam. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2013;91(3):234-236.
21. Kushner, A. Epidemiology of landmines. International Humanitarian Surgeons Overseas. The Society of International Humanitarian Surgeons Newsletter. 2009;3:(1).
22. Fraser, M. Landmines: an ongoing environmental health problem for the children of Afghanistan. Journal of Rural and Remote Environmental Health. 2003;2(2):76-89.
23. Can, M, Yildirimcan, H, Ozkalipci, O, et al. Landmine associated injuries in children in Turkey. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 2009;16(8):464-468.
24. Surrency, AB, Graitcer, PL, Henderson, AK. Key factors for civilian injuries and deaths from exploding landmines and ordnance. Journal of Injury Prevention. 2007;13(3):197-201.

Keywords

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Epidemiological Study of Child Casualties of Landmines and Unexploded Ordnances: A National Study from Iran

  • Batool Mousavi (a1), Mohammad Reza Soroush (a1), Mehdi Masoumi (a1), Shahriar Khateri (a1), Ehsan Modirian (a2), Hamid Shokoohi (a3), Mohammad Javad Fatemi (a4), Mohammad Ali Hematti (a1), Mansour Soroush (a1), Mohammad Ghassemi-Broumand (a5), Mehdi Rassafiani (a6), Mostafa Allami (a1), Farshad Nouri (a7), Amir Yavari (a1), Zohreh Ganjparvar (a1), Mojtaba Kamyab (a8) and Seyed Abbas Mirsadeghi (a1)...

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.