Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-5c569c448b-bmzkg Total loading time: 0.315 Render date: 2022-07-05T10:53:29.731Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

Predictability of the Call Triage Protocol to Detect if Dispatchers Should Activate Community First Responders

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  16 September 2014

Kenji Narikawa*
Affiliation:
Department of Sport and Medical Science Paramedic Course, Faculty of Medical Technology, Teikyo University, Itabashi, Tokyo, Japan
Tetsuya Sakamoto
Affiliation:
School of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Trauma and Resuscitation Center, Teikyo University, Itabashi, Tokyo, Japan
Katsuaki Kubota
Affiliation:
National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster of Japan, Tyofu, Tokyo, Japan
Masayuki Suzukawa
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Chikara Yonekawa
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Keisuke Yamashita
Affiliation:
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Yoshiki Toyokuni
Affiliation:
Post-graduate School, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan
Yasuharu Yasuda
Affiliation:
Hiroshima International University, Department of Clinical Engineering, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, Japan
Akihiro Kobayashi
Affiliation:
Administration Division, Haga Fire Department, Mooka, Tochigi, Japan
Kazunori Iijima
Affiliation:
Administration Division, Haga Fire Department, Mooka, Tochigi, Japan
*
Correspondence: Kenji Narikawa, BS, EMT-P Department of Sport and Medical Science Paramedic Course Faculty of Medical Technology Teikyo University 2-11-1 Kaga Itabashi-ku Tokyo, Japan 173-8605 E-mail narikawa@med.teikyo-u.ac.jp

Abstract

Introduction

Shortening response time to an emergency call leads to the success of resuscitation by chest compression and defibrillation. However, response by ambulance or fire truck is not fast enough for resuscitation in Japan. In rural areas, response times can be more than 10 minutes. One possible way to shorten the response time is to establish a system of first responders (eg, police officers or firefighters) who are trained appropriately to perform resuscitation. Another possible way is to use a system of Community First Responders (CFRs) who are trained neighbors. At present, there are no call triage protocols to decide if dispatchers should activate CFRs.

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the predictability to detect if dispatchers should activate CFRs.

Methods

Two CFR call triage protocols (CFR protocol Ver.0 and Ver.1) were established. The predictability of CFR protocols was examined by comparing the paramedic field reports. From the results of sensitivity of CFR protocol, the numbers of annual CFR activations were calculated. All data were collected, prospectively, for four months from October 1, 2012 through January 31, 2013.

Results

The ROC-AUC values appear slightly higher in CFR protocol Ver.1 (0.857; 95% CI, 79.8-91.7) than in CFR protocol Ver.0 (0.847; 95% CI, 79.0-90.3). The number of annual CFR activations is higher in CFR protocol Ver.0 (7.47) than in CFR protocol Ver.1 (5.45).

Conclusion

Two call triage protocols have almost the same predictability as the Medical Priority Dispatch System (MPDS). The study indicates that CFR protocol Ver.1 is better than CFR protocol Ver.0 because of the higher predictability and low number of activations. Also, it indicates that CFRs who are not medical professionals can respond to a patient with cardiac arrest.

NarikawaK, SakamotoT, KubotaK, SuzukawaM, YonekawaC, YamashitaK, ToyokuniY, YasudaY, KobayashiA, IijimaK. Predictability of the Call Triage Protocol to Detect if Dispatchers Should Activate Community First Responders. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2014;29(5):1-5.

Type
Original Research
Copyright
Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2014 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

1.Travers, AH, Rea, TD, Bobrow, BJ, et al. Part 4: CPR Overview: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010;122:S676-S684.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
2.Wissenberg, M, Lippert, FK, Folke, F, et al. Association of national initiatives to improve cardiac arrest management with rates of bystander intervention and patient survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. JAMA. 2013;310(13):1377-1384.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
3.Ambulance Service Planning Office of Fire and Disaster Management Agency of Japan. Ministry of Affairs and Communications. Change of ambulance arrival time to the scene (national average) [in Japanese]. P.63. http://www.fdma.go.jp/neuter/topics/houdou/h21/2101/210122-2houdou_h.pdf. Accessed May 1, 2013.Google Scholar
4.Ambulance Service Planning Office of Fire and Disaster Management Agency of Japan. Ministry of Affairs and Communications. Change of ambulance arrival time to the scene (national average) [In Japanese]. P. 103. http://www.fdma.go.jp/neuter/topics/kyukyukyujo_genkyo/h24/01_kyukyu.pdf. Accessed May 1, 2013.Google Scholar
5.Ambulance Service Planning Office of Fire and Disaster Management Agency of Japan. Ministry of Affairs and Communications. Change of ambulance arrival time to the scene (national average) [In Japanese]. P 59-60. http://www.fdma.go.jp/neuter/topics/kyukyukyujo_genkyo/h24/01_kyukyu.pdf. Accessed May 1, 2013.Google Scholar
6.White, RD, Asplin, BR, Bugliosi, TF, Hankins, DG. High discharge survival rate after out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation with rapid defibrillation by police and paramedics. Ann Emerg Med. 1996 Nov;28(5):480-485.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
7.Bach, A, Christensen, EF. Accuracy in identifying patients with loss of consciousness in a police-operated emergency call centre—first step in the chain of survival. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51(6):742-746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
8.Smith, KL, Peeters, A, McNeil, JJ. Results from the first 12 months of a fire first-responder program in Australia. Resuscitation. 2001;49(2):143-150.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
9. Haga Area Fire Department. Annual Report 2011 [In Japanese].Google Scholar
10.Fire and Disaster Management Agency of Japan. Ministry of Affairs and Communications. Study Group Reports of triage system in ambulance service [in Japanese]. March 2007.Google Scholar
11.Agarwal, DA, Hess, EP, Atkinson, EJ, White, RD. Ventricular fibrillation in Rochester, Minnesota: experience over 18 years. Resuscitation. 2009 ; 80(11):1253-1258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
12.Scottish Ambulance Service. Scottish Ambulance Service First Responder – Strategy & Policy Document. Scotland: Scottish Ambulance Service; 2010.Google Scholar
13.London Ambulance Service Ambulance Operations Manager. First Responders Policy. London: London Ambulance Service; 2010.Google ScholarPubMed
14.Queensland Ambulance Service. First responder honorary ambulance office: help close at hand. https://ambulance.qld.gov.au/docs/First_Responder-as_at_Dec2013.pdf. Accessed May 12, 2013.Google Scholar
15.Clawson, J, Barron, T, Scott, G, Siriwardena, AN, Patterson, B, Olola, C. Medical Priority Dispatch System breathing problems protocol key question combinations are associated with patient acuity. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2012;27(4):375-380.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
16.Flynn, J, Archer, F, Morgans, A. Sensitivity and specificity of the medical priority dispatch system in detecting cardiac arrest emergency calls in Melbourne. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21(2):72-76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
17.Key, CB, Pepe, PE, Persse, DE, Calderon, D. Can first responders be sent to selected 9-1-1emergency medical services calls without an ambulance? Acad Emerg Med. 2003;10(4):339-346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
18.Van Alem, AP, Vrenken, RH, de Vos, R, Tijssen, JG, Koster, RW. Use of automated external defibrillator by first responders in out of hospital cardiac arrest: prospective controlled trial. BMJ. 2003;327(7427):1312.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
8
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Predictability of the Call Triage Protocol to Detect if Dispatchers Should Activate Community First Responders
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Predictability of the Call Triage Protocol to Detect if Dispatchers Should Activate Community First Responders
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Predictability of the Call Triage Protocol to Detect if Dispatchers Should Activate Community First Responders
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *