Published online by Cambridge University Press: 25 May 2011
There is an upward trend in facial injuries following changes in population pattern, increasing industrialization and urbanization, hence maxillofacial trauma is becoming a burden and a leading medical problem in emergency rooms worldwide.
A retrospective study of patients with maxillofacial fractures seen and treated at the Jai Parkash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, New Delhi, India between January 2007 to June 2010. Data extracted from the patients' records include aetiology, age, sex, types and sites of fractures, treatment modality and concomitant injuries.
There were 795 fractures of the maxillofacial skeleton and 86 concomitant injuries from 542 patients. Road traffic accident (56.8%) was the most common aetiologic factor, followed by falls (22.3%) and fights (18.5%). The age range was from 3 years to 75 years (mean = 34.7) with a peak incidence in the 3rd decade with a male–female sex ratio of 3.7:1. The most common location of maxillofacial fractures was the mandible 615(77%) and middle third 205(23%). With regards to mandibular fractures, the body (29.6%) was the commonest sites, followed by the angle (24.4%), ramus (19.5%), dentoalveolar (14.6%), symphysis (11.0%), condyle (0.8%) while in the middle third, the nasal bone (36.7%) was the most common, followed by zygomatic bone (27.8), Lefort II (14.4), Lefort I (7.8%), dentoalveolar (10.0%) and Lefort III (3.3%). Majority of the patients were treated by Open reduction and internal fixation (70.6). Concomitant injuries were 10.8% with orthopaedic injuries accounting for the majority (63.9%). Head injury was associated with 16.3 % of cases.
Maxillofacial fractures are on the increase. We advocate the establishment of regionalized trauma centers with basic training available to all surgical residents for initial emergency room management.
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