In this work synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction technique was successfully applied for the analysis of pigments found in excavation at Carriqueo rock shelter, Neuquén, Argentina. The pigment samples of orange, red, and brown shades were collected from different levels of this archaeological site and compared with a suspected source of provenance (La Oficina creek). X-ray diffraction patterns of several yellowish, reddish, and red pigments showed the presence of haematite, goethite, kaolinite, and quartz. The majority of Carriqueo collected samples belonged to the same group of the suspected source, having haematite and quartz as main crystalline phases. The results indicate that the raw material from La Oficina is the source of most of the pigments found at Carriqueo. The present work helps us to understand the strategy of supplying raw materials by human groups in the North Patagonia region.