A novel type X-ray detector, called PILATUS, has been developed at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Switzerland during the last decade. PILATUS detectors are two-dimensional hybrid pixel array detectors, which operate in single-photon counting mode. PILATUS detectors feature a very wide dynamic range (1:1 000 000), very short readout time (<3.0 ms), no readout noise, and very high counting rate (>2×106counts/s/pixel). In addition, a lower energy threshold can be set in order to suppress fluorescence background from the sample, thus a very good signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. The combination of these features for area detectors is unique and thus the PILATUS detectors are considered to be the next generation X-ray detectors. The basic building block of all the detectors is the PILATUS module having an active area of 83.8×33.5 mm2. The PILATUS 100K is a complete detector system with one module. PILATUS detector systems can have other configurations, including large area systems consisting of 20 to 60 modules that can cover up to an area of 431×448 mm2. Such large systems are mainly used for macromolecular structure determination, such as protein crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering. The PILATUS 100K detector can be easily adapted to many systems; the single-module detector is integrated to an in-house X-ray diffraction (XRD) system. Examples of XRD measurements with the PILATUS 100K detector are given.