Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Steps toward accurate large-area analyses of Genesis solar wind samples: evaluation of surface cleaning methods using total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

  • Martina Schmeling (a1), Donald S. Burnett (a2), Amy J. G. Jurewicz (a3) and Igor V. Veryovkin (a4)

Abstract

Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) was used to analyze residual surface contamination on Genesis solar wind samples and to evaluate different cleaning methods. To gauge the suitability of a cleaning method, two samples were analyzed following cleaning by lab-based TXRF. The analysis comprised an overview and a crude manual mapping of the samples by orienting them with respect to the incident X-ray beam in such a way that different regions were covered. The results show that cleaning with concentrated hydrochloric acid and a combination of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid decreased persistent inorganic contaminants substantially on one sample. The application of CO2 snow for surface cleaning tested on the other sample appears to be effective in removing one persistent Genesis contaminant, namely germanium. Unfortunately, the TXRF analysis results of the second sample were impacted by relatively high background contamination. This was mostly due to the relatively small sample size and that the solar wind collector was already mounted with silver glue for resonance ion mass spectrometry (RIMS) on an aluminium stub. Further studies are planned to eliminate this problem. In an effort to identify the location of very persistent contaminants, selected samples were also subjected to environmental scanning electron microscopy. The results showed excellent agreement with TXRF analysis.

Copyright

Corresponding author

a) Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail: mschmel@luc.edu

References

Hide All
Allton, J. H., Wentworth, S. J., Rodriguez, M. C., and Calaway, M. J. (2007). “Cleaning Genesis solar wind collectors with ultrapure water residual analysis,” Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVII, Paper 2138.
Burnett, D. S., Barraclough, B. L., Bennett, R., Neugebauer, M., Oldham, L. P., Sasaki, C. N., Sevilla, S., Smith, N., Stansberry, E., Sweetnam, D., and Wiens, R. C. (2003). “The Genesis discovery mission: return of solar matter to Earth,” Space Sci. Rev. 105, 509534.
Calaway, M. J., Burnett, D. S., Rodriguez, M. C., Sestak, S., Allton, J. H., and Stansberry, E. K. (2007). “Decontamination of Genesis array materials by UV-Ozone cleaning,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVII, Paper 162.
Calaway, M. J., Rodriguez, M. C., Allton, J. H., and Stansberry, E. K. (2009). “Decontaminating solar wind samples with the Genesis ultrapure water megasonic spin cleaner,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXX, Paper 1183.
Hellin, D., de Gendt, S., Valckx, N., Mertens, P. W., and Vinckier, C. (2006). “Trends in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for metallic contamination control in semiconductor nanotechnology,” Spectrochim. Acta B 61, 496514.
Huang, S., Humayun, M., and Burnett, D. (2008). “Surficial contamination on Genesis flight silicon on sapphire (SoS) wafer fragments and its implication to the determination of solar wind tracers,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXIX, Paper 1976.
Huang, S., Humayun, M., King, S., Goddard, B., and Burnett, D. (2006). “Step cleaning experiment on the Genesis wafers,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVII, Paper 2440.
Jurewicz, A. J. G. et al. (2003). “The Genesis solar-wind collector materials,” Space Sci. Rev. 105, 535560.
Klockenkämper, R. (1997). Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (Wiley and Sons, New York, NY).
Pahlke, S., Fabry, L., Kotz, L., Mantler, C., and Ehmann, T. (2001). “Determination of ultra trace contaminants on silicon wafer surfaces using TXRF “state-of-the art,” Spectrochim. Acta B 56, 22612274.
Reisenberg, D., Wiens, R. C., Barraclough, B. L., Steinberg, J. E., DeKoning, C., Zurbuchen, T., and Burnett, D. S. (2005). “The Genesis Mission solar wind samples: collection times, estimated fluences and solar-wind conditions,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVI, Paper 1278.
Schmeling, M. (2005). “Total reflection X-ray fluorescence,” Elsevier Encyclopedia Anal. Sci. 9, 440448.
Schmeling, M., Burnett, D. S., and Jurewicz, A. J. G. (2011). “Surface characterization of genesis samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry: contaminants and roughness variations,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXXII, Paper 2041.
Sekowski, M., Steen, C., Nutsch, A., Birnbaum, E., Burenkov, A., and Pichler, P. (2008). “Total reflection X-ray fluorescence as a sensitive analysis method for the investigation of sputtering processes,” Spectrochim. Acta B 63, 13821386.
Sestak, S., Franchi, I. A., Verchosky, A. B., Al-Kuzee, J., Braithwaite, N. St. J., and Burnett, D. S. (2006). “Application of semiconductor industry cleaning technologies for Genesis sample collectors,” Lunar Planet. Sci. XXXVII, Paper #1878.
Shaffner, T. J. (2000). “Semiconductor characterization and analytical technology”, Proc. IEEE 88, 14161437.
Streli, C., Kregsamer, P., Wobrauschek, P., Gatterbauer, H., Görgl, R., Pianetta, P., Pahlke, S., Fabry, L., Palmetshofer, L., and Schmeling, M. (1999). “Low Z Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence analysis- challenges and answers,” Spectrochim. Acta B 54, 14331441.
West, M., Ellis, E. T., Potts, P. J., Streli, C., Vanhoof, C., Wegrzynek, D., and Wobrauschek, P. (2010). “Atomic spectrometry update. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 25, 15031545.
Wobrauschek, P. (1998). “Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of trace elements in the femtogram region: a survey – invited lecture,” J. Anal. Atm. Spectrometry 13, 333337.
Wobrauschek, P. (2007). “Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis – a review,” X-ray Spectrom. 36, 289300.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed