Skip to main content Accessibility help

Preparation of Bi4Te3 highly oriented nanopillars array film with enhanced electrical properties

  • Jing Wu (a1), Jikang Jian (a1), Shufang Wang (a2), Shuang Guo (a2), Renbo Lei (a1) and Haitao Liu (a3)...


The Bi4Te3 films with well-ordered orientation and microstructure were successfully prepared on SiO2 substrate by a vacuum thermal evaporation deposition technique for the first time. We discussed the effects of evaporation temperature and substrate temperature on the phase and its well-ordered growth of Bi4Te3 films. The formation of Bi4Te3 phase is owing to the differences of the saturated vapor pressure. The thermoelectric transport properties of the Bi4Te3 films were investigated and the (00l)-oriented nanopillars array film has a better electrical transport performance, whose value of PF is 0.032 mWm−1 K−2 at 339 K, approaching twice that of the non-oriented ordinary film. The enhanced electrical properties of Bi4Te3 films could be achieved via the high-crystallinity well-controlled (00l)-oriented nanopillars array.


Corresponding author

a)Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Electronic mail:


Hide All
Alama, H., and Ramakrishna, S. (2013). “A review on the enhancement of figure of merit from bulk to nano-thermoelectric materials,” Nano Energy 2, 190212.
Bashir, M. B. A., Said, S. M., Sabri, M. F. M., Shnawah, D. A., and Elsheikh, M. H. (2014). “Recent advances on Mg2Si1−xSnx materials for thermoelectric generation,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 37, 569584.
Bejenari, I., and Kantser, V. (2008). “Thermoelectric properties of bismuth telluride nanowires in the constant relaxation-time approximation,” Phys. Rev. B 78, 115322.
Bell, L. E. (2008). “Cooling, heating, generating power, and recovering waste heat with thermoelectric system,” Science 321, 14571461.
Bos, J. W. G., Zandbergen, H. W., Lee, M. H., Ong, N. P., and Cava, R. J. (2007). “Structure and thermoelectric properties of the infinitely adaptive series (Bi2)m(Bi2Te3)n,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195203.
Bos, J. W. G., Faucheux, F., Downie, R. A., and Marcinkova, A. (2012). “Phase stability, structures and properties of the (Bi2)m (Bi2Te3)n natural superlattices,” J. Solid State Chem. 193, 1318.
Boukai, A. I., Bunimovich, Y., Tahir-Kheli, J., Yu, J. K., Goddard, W. A. III., and Heath, J. R. (2008). “Silicon nanowires as efficient thermoelectric materials,” Nature 451, 168171.
Boulouz, A., Giani, A., Pascal-Delannoy, F., Boulouz, M., Foucaran, A., and Boyer, A. (1998). “Preparation and characterization of MOCVD bismuth telluride thin films,” J. Crystal Growth 194, 336341.
Chen, T. H., Lin, P. Y., Chang, H. C., and Chen, C. H. (2017). “Enhanced thermoelectricity of three-dimensionally mesostructured BixSb2−xTe3 nanoassemblies: from micro-scaled open gaps to isolated sealed mesopores,” Nanoscale 9, 32833292.
Chen, X. L., Lan, Y. C., Li, J. Y., Cao, Y. G., and He, M. (2001a). “Radial growth dynamics of nanowires,” J. Crystal Growth 222, 586590.
Chen, X. L., Li, J. Y., Lan, Y. C., and Cao, Y. G. (2001b). “Morphological stability of a nanowire during growth process,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 15, 2731.
Dehkordi, A. M., Zebarjadi, M., He, J., and Tritt, T. M. (2015). “Thermoelectric power factor: enhancement mechanisms and strategies for higher performance thermoelectric materials,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R 97, 122.
Freeman, R. D., and Edwards, J. G. (1967). The Characterization of High Temperature Vapors (Wiley, New York), p. 508.
Fülöp, A., Song, Y. X., Charpentier, S., Shi, P. X., Ekström, M., Galletti, L., Arpaia, R., Bauch, T., Lombardi, F., and Wang, S. M. (2014). “Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE,” Appl. Phys. Express 7, 045503.
Goldsmid, H. J. (2016). Introduction to Thermoelectricity (Springer, Berlin), 2nd ed., p. 37.
He, W., Zhang, G., Zhang, X. X., Ji, J., Li, G. Q., and Zhao, X. D. (2015). “Recent development and application of thermoelectric generator and cooler,” Appl. Energy 143, 125.
Heremans, J. P., Jovovic, V., Toberer, E. S., Saramat, A., Kurosaki, K., Charoenphakdee, A., Yamanaka, S., and Snyder, G. J. (2008). “Enhancement of thermoelectric efficiency in PbTe by distortion of the electronic density of states,” Science 321, 554557.
Hirahara, T., Bihlmayer, G., Sakamoto, Y., Yamada, M., Miyazaki, H., Kimura, S. I., Blügel, S., and Hasegawa, S. J. (2011). “Interfacing 2D and 3D topological insulators: Bi(111) bilayer on Bi2Te3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166801.
Honig, R. E., and Kramer, R. A. (1969). “Vapor pressure date for solid and liquid elements,” RCA Rev. 30, 285305.
Kashchiev, D. (1977). “Growth kinetics of dislocation-free interfaces and growth mode of thin films,” J. Crystal Growth 40, 2946.
Kuznetsov, P. I., Yapaskurt, V. O., Shchamkhalova, B. S., Shcherbakov, V. D., Yakushcheva, G. G., Luzanov, V. A., and Jitov, V. A. (2016). “Growth of Bi2Te3 films and other phases of Bi-Te system by MOVPE,” J. Crystal Growth 455, 122128.
Li, S. H., Toprak, M. S., Soliman, H. M. A., Zhou, J., Muhammed, M., Platzek, D., and Müller, E. (2006). “Fabrication of nanostructured thermoelectric bismuth telluride thick films by electrochemical deposition,” Chem. Mater. 18, 36273633.
Lin, Y. M., Sun, X. Z., and Dresselhaus, M. S. (2000). “Theoretical investigation of thermoelectric transport properties of cylindrical Bi nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 46104623.
Loa, I., Bos, J. W. G., Downie, R. A., and Syassen, K. (2016). “Atomic ordering in cubic bismuth telluride alloy phases at high pressure,” Phys. Rev. B 93, 224109.
Lotgering, F. K. (1959). “Topotactical reactions with ferromagnetic oxides having hexagonal crystal structure,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 9, 113123.
Makala, R. S., Jagannadham, K., and Sales, B. C. (2003). “Pulsed laser deposition of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 39073918.
Montgomery, D. S. (1983). “Disorder scattering and electron mobility in Hg1−xCdxTe,” J. Phy. C: Solid State Phys. 16, 29232934.
Mu, X., Zhou, H. Y., He, D. Q., Zhou, W. Y., Wei, P., Zhu, W. T., Nie, X. L., Liu, H. J., and Zhang, Q. J. (2017). “Enhanced electrical properties of stoichiometric Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 films with high-crystallinity via layer-by-layer in-situ growth,” Nano Energy 33, 5564.
Prevey, P. S. (2000). “X-ray diffraction characterization of crystallinity and phase composition in plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings,” J. Therm. Spray Technol. 9, 369376.
Rostek, R. (2015). “A review of electroplating for V–VI thermoelectric films: from synthesis to device integration,” J. Mater. Res. 30, 25182543.
Song, M. S., and Kim, Y. (2014). “Fletching-shaped Bi4Te3-ZnTe heterostructure nanowires,” Nanotechnology 25, 505605.
Su, X. L., Wei, P., Li, H., Liu, W., Yan, Y. G., Li, P., Su, C. Q., Xie, C. J., Zhao, W. Y., Zhai, P. C., Zhang, Q. J., Tang, X. F., and Uher, C. (2017). “Multi-scale microstructural thermoelectric materials: transport behavior, non-equilibrium preparation, and applications,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1602013.
Tan, G. J., Zhao, L. D., and Kanatzidis, M. G. (2016). “Rationally designing high-performance bulk thermoelectric materials,” Chem. Rev. 116, 1212312149.
Tan, M., Deng, Y., and Wang, Y. (2014). “Ordered structure and high thermoelectric properties of Bi2(Te,Se)3 nanowire array,” Nano Energy 3, 144151.
Wang, G., Lok, S. K., Wong, G. K. L., and Sou, I. K. (2009). “Molecular beam epitaxy-grown nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 263102.
Wang, H. F., and Wu, Z. Q. (1990). Solid Physical Experiment Method (Higher Education Press, Beijing).
Wang, R. Y., Feser, J. P., Lee, J. S., Talapin, D. V., Segalman, R., and Majumdar, A. (2008). “Enhanced thermopower in PbSe nanocrystal quantum dot superlattices,” Nano Lett. 8, 22832288.
Xu, H., Song, Y. X., Pan, W. W., Chen, Q. M., Wu, X. Y., Lu, P. F., Gong, Q., and Wang, S. M. (2015). “Vibrational properties of epitaxial Bi4Te3 films as studied by Raman spectroscopy,” AIP Adv. 5, 087103.
Yin, Y., Zhang, Y. M., Gao, T. L., Yao, T., Zhang, X. H., Han, J. C., Wang, X. J., Zhang, Z. H., Xu, P., Zhang, P., Cao, X. Z. H., Song, B., and Jin, S. (2017). “Synergistic phase and disorder engineering in 1T-MoSe2 nanosheets for enhanced hydrogen-evolution reaction,” Adv. Mater. 29, 1700311.
Zhu, H. T., Luo, J., and Liang, J. K. (2014). “Synthesis of highly crystalline Bi2Te3 nanotubes and their enhanced thermoelectric properties,” J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 1282112826.
Zhu, T. J., Hu, L. P., Zhao, X. B., and He, J. (2016). “New insights into intrinsic point defects in V2VI3 thermoelectric materials,” Adv. Sci. 3, 160004.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed