Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-78dcdb465f-fqvcn Total loading time: 0.325 Render date: 2021-04-19T13:42:35.025Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Religion as a Peacemaker? Peace Duration after Ethnic Civil Wars

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  17 November 2016

Mehmet Gurses
Affiliation:
Florida Atlantic University
Nicolas Rost
Affiliation:
United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Corresponding

Abstract

What role does religion play in preventing civil war from recurring? Politicians have proposed that when warring groups share the same religion, achieving a durable peace will be easier. We test this hypothesis empirically using a large-n sample of all ethnic civil wars that began and ended between 1950 and 2006, and a measure of co-religiosity between the ethnic group in power and the main opposition group. The analysis shows that there is no positive relationship between co-religiosity and the duration of post-civil war peace, showing that sharing the same religion may not help to bring about peace following an ethnic civil war. To the contrary, the closer religious ties, the less likely it is that peace will last after the end of the conflict, and the higher the risk that conflict will recur.

Type
Articles
Copyright
Copyright © Religion and Politics Section of the American Political Science Association 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

Footnotes

We would like to thank Gail Choate, two anonymous reviewers, and Paul A. Djupe for their helpful comments. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations.

References

Abu-Nimer, Mohammed. 2001. “Conflict Resolution, Culture, and Religion: Toward a Training Model of Interreligious Peacebuilding.” Journal of Peace Research 38:685704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alger, F. Chadwick. 2002. “Religion as a Peace Tool.” The Global Review of Ethnopolitics 1:94109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Appleby, R. Scott. 2000. The Ambivalence of the Sacred: Religion, Violence, and Reconciliation. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
Asal, Victor, and Phillips, Brian J.. 2015. “What Explains Ethnic Organizational Violence? Evidence from Eastern Europe and Russia.” Conflict Management and Peace Science doi: 10.1177/0738894215614504.Google Scholar
Aspinall, Edward. 2009. Islam and Nation: Separatist Rebellion in Aceh, Indonesia. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
Aspinall, Edward. 2007. “From Islamism to Nationalism in Aceh, Indonesia.” Nations and Nationalism 13:245263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Basedau, Matthias, Struver, Georg, Vullers, Johannes, and Wegenast, Tim. 2011. “Do Religious Factors Impact Armed Conflict? Empirical Evidence From Sub-Saharan Africa.” Terrorism and Political Violence 23:752779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Belge, Ceren, and Karakoç, Ekrem. 2015. “Minorities in the Middle East: Ethnicity, Religion, and Support for Authoritarianism.” Political Research Quarterly 68:280292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bercovitch, Jacob, and Elgström, Ole. 2001. “Culture and International Mediation: Exploring Theoretical and Empirical Linkages.” International Negotiation 6:323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birnir, Kristin Johanna, and Satana, Nil S.. 2013. “Religion and Coalition Politics.” Comparative Political Studies 46:330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bogaards, Matthijs. 2013. “The Choice for Proportional Representation: Electoral System Design in Peace Agreements.” Civil Wars 15:7187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., and Jones, Bradford S.. 2004. Event History Modeling — A Guide for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brubaker, Rogers. 2009. “Ethnicity, Race and Nationalism.” Annual Review of Sociology 35:2142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cammett, Melani, and Malesky, Edmund. 2012. “Power Sharing in Postconflict Societies: Implications for Peace and Governance.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56:9821016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Wimmer, Andreas, and Min, Brian. 2010. “Why Do Ethnic Groups Rebel? New Data and Analysis.” World Politics 62:87119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cederman, Lars-Erik, Hug, Simon, Schadel, Andreas, and Wucherpfenning, Julian. 2015. “Territorial Autonomy in the Shadow of Conflict: Too Little, Too Late?American Political Science Review 109:354370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chapman, Thomas, and Roeder, Philip G.. 2007. “Partition as a Solution to Wars of Nationalism: The Importance of Institutions.” American Political Science Review 10:677691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke, and Söderbom, Mans. 2008. “Post-Conflict Risks.” Journal of Peace Research 45:461478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doyle, Michael, and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2000. “International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 94:779801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Driessen, D. Michael. 2010. “Religion, State, and Democracy: Analyzing Two Dimensions of Church-State Arrangements.” Politics and Religion 3:5580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Driessen, D. Michael. 2014. Religion and Democratization: Framing Religious and Political Identities in Muslim and Catholic Societies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eck, Kristine. 2009. “From Armed Conflict to War: Ethnic Mobilization and Conflict Intensification.” International Studies Quarterly 53:369388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, D. James, and Laitin, David D.. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97:7590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, D. James, and Laitin, David D.. 2000. “Violence and the Social Construction of Ethnic Identity.” International Organization 54:845877.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortna, Page Virginia. 2004. “Does Peacekeeping Keep Peace? International Intervention and the Duration of Peace after Civil War.” International Studies Quarterly 48:269292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fortna, Page Virginia. 2003. “Scraps of Paper? Agreements and the Durability of Peace.” International Organization 57:337372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox, Jonathan. 1997. “The Salience of Religious Issues in Ethnic Conflicts: A Large-N Study.” Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 3:119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fuhrmann, Matthew, and Tir, Jeroslav. 2009. “Territorial Dimensions of Enduring Internal Rivalries.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 26:307329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gibson, James L. 2004. “Does Truth Lead to Reconciliation? Testing the Causal Assumptions of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Process.” American Journal of Political Science 48:201217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gleditsch, Petter Nils, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, and Strand, Hirard. 2002. “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Data Set.” Journal of Peace Research 39:615637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gubler, Joshua R., and Sawat Selway, Joel. 2012. “Horizontal Inequality, Crosscutting Cleavages, and Civil War.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 56:206232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurses, Mehmet, and Rost, Nicolas. 2013. “Sustaining the Peace after Ethnic Civil Wars.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 30:469491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurses, Mehmet, and Mason, T. David. 2010. “Weak States, Regime Types, and Civil War.” Civil Wars 12:140155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurses, Mehmet. 2015a. “Transnational Ethnic Kin and Civil War Outcomes.” Political Research Quarterly 68:142153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gurses, Mehmet. 2015b. “Is Islam a Cure for Ethnic Conflict? Evidence from Turkey.” Politics and Religion 8:135154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Halpern, Jodi, and Weinstein, Harvey M.. 2004. “Rehumanizing the Other: Empathy and Reconciliation.” Human Rights Quarterly 26:561583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harbom, Lotta, and Wallensteen, Peter. 2010. “Armed Conflict, 1946–2009.” Journal of Peace Research 47:501509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harff, Barbara. 2003. “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust? Assessing Risks of Genocide and Political Mass Murder since 1955.” American Political Science Review 97:5773.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hartzell, Caroline, Hoddie, Matthew, and Rothchild, Donald. 2001. “Stabilizing the Peace after Civil War: An Investigation of Some Key Variables.” International Organization 55:183208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haynes, Jeffrey. 2009. “Conflict, Conflict Resolution and Peace-Building: The Role of Religion in Mozambique, Nigeria and Cambodia.” Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 47:5275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hegre, Havard, and Sambanis, Nicholas. 2006. “Sensitivity Analysis of Empirical Results on Civil War Onset.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 50:508535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hegre, Havard, Ellingsen, Tanja, Gates, Scott, and Petter Gleditsch, Nils. 2001. “Towards a Democratic Civil Peace? Democracy, Political Change and Civil War, 1816–1992.” American Political Science Review 95:3448.Google Scholar
Hoddie, Mathew, and Hartzell, Caroline. 2005. “Signals of Reconciliation: Institution-Building and the Resolution of Civil Wars.” International Studies Review 7:2140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Horowitz, L. Donald. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Horowitz, L. Donald. 2008. “Conciliatory Institutions and Constitutional Processes in Post-Conflict States.” William and Mary Law Review 49:12131248.Google Scholar
Houston, Christopher. 2001. Islam, Kurds and the Turkish Nation State. New York, NY: Berg.Google Scholar
Huntington, P. Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
Inman, Molly, Kishi, Roudabeh, Wilkenfeld, Jonathan, Gelfand, Michele, and Salmon, Elizabeth. 2014. “Cultural Influences on Mediation in International Crises.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58:685712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johansen, C. Robert. 1997. “Radical Islam and Nonviolence: A Case Study of Religious Empowerment and Constraint among Pashtuns.” Journal of Peace Research 34:5371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnston, Douglas, and Sampson, Cynthia. 1994. Religion: The Missing Dimension of Statecraft. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Johnston, Douglas. 1994. “Review of the Findings.” In Religion: The Missing Dimension of Statecraft, eds. Johnston, Douglas, and Sampson, Cynthia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 258265.Google Scholar
Joshi, Madhav. 2013. “United Nations Peacekeeping, Democratic Process, and the Durability of Peace after Civil Wars.” International Studies Perspectives 14:362382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kaufmann, Chaim. 1996. “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars.” International Security 20:136175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leng, Russell J., and Regan, Patrick M.. 2003. “Social and Political Cultural Effects on the Outcomes of Mediation in Militarized Interstate Disputes.” International Studies Quarterly 47:431452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Licklider, Roy. 1995. “The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945–1993.” American Political Science Review 89:681690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lindberg, Jo-Esteyin. 2008. “Running on Faith? A Quantitative Analysis of the Effect of Religious Cleavages on the Intensity and Duration of Internal Conflicts.” Master's thesis. University of Oslo.Google Scholar
Marshall, Monty G., and Jaggers, Keith. 2009. “Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1880–2008.” www.systemicpeace.org/polity/ polity4.htm (Accessed on December 16, 2009).Google Scholar
Mason, David T., and Fett, Patrick J.. 1996. “How Civil Wars End: A Rational Choice Approach.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 40:546568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mason, David T., Weingarten, Joseph P., and Fett, Patrick J.. 1999. “Win, Lose, or Draw: Predicting the Outcomes of Civil Wars.” Political Research Quarterly 52:239268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mattes, Michaela, and Savun, Burcu. 2010. “Information, Agreement Design, and the Durability of Civil War Settlements.” American Journal of Political Science 54:511524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melander, Erik. 2009. “The Geography of Fear: Regional Ethnic Diversity, the Security Dilemma and Ethnic War.” European Journal of International Relations 15:95124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, J. Robert. 2007. Both Prayed to the Same God: Religion and Faith in the American Civil War. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
Mitchell, Gabriel. 2012. “Islam as Peacemaker: The AKP's Attempt at a Kurdish Resolution.” www.thewashingtonreview.org/articles/islam-as-peacemaker-the-akps-vision-of-a-kurdish-resolution.html (Accessed on August 15, 2014).Google Scholar
Moore, H. Will, and Shellman, Stephen M. 2004. “Fear of Persecution: Forced Migration, 1952–1995.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48:723745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mullenbach, J. Mark. 2005. “Deciding to Keep Peace: An Analysis of International Influences on the Establishment of Third-Party Peacekeeping Missions.” International Studies Quarterly 49:529556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nichols, Bruce. 1994. “Religious Conciliation between the Sandinistas and the East Coast Indians of Nicaragua.” In Religion: The Missing Dimension of Statecraft, eds. Johnston, Douglas, and Sampson, Cynthia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 6487.Google Scholar
Pearce, Susanna. 2005. “Religious Rage: A Quantitative Analysis of the Intensity of Religious Conflicts.” Terrorism and Political Violence 17:333352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Philpott, Daniel. 2007. “Explaining the Political Ambivalence of Religion.” American Political Science Review 101:505525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posen, R. Barry. 1993. “The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict.” Survival 35:2247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Quinn, J. Michael, David Mason, T., and Gurses, Mehmet. 2007. “Sustaining the Peace: Determinants of Civil War Recurrence.” International Interactions 33:167193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sambanis, Nicholas. 2000. “Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War: An Empirical Critique of the Theoretical Literature.” World Politics 52:437483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sambanis, Nicholas. 2001. “Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part 1).” Journal of Conflict Resolution 45:59282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sambanis, Nicholas. 2004. “What is Civil War? Conceptual and Empirical Complexities of an Operational Definition.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 48:814858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sampson, Cynthia. 1994. “‘To Make Real the Bond between Us All’: Quaker Conciliation During the Nigerian Civil War.” In Religion: The Missing Dimension of Statecraft, eds. Johnston, Douglas, and Sampson, Cynthia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 88118.Google Scholar
Sarigil, Zeki, and Fazlioglu, Omer. 2013. “Religion and Ethno-nationalism: Turkey's Kurdish Issue.” Nations and Nationalism 19:551571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarigil, Zeki. 2008. “Curbing Ethno-nationalism in Turkey: An Empirical Assessment of Pro-Islamic and Socio-economic Approaches.” Ethnic and Racial Studies 33:533553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Somer, Murat, and Glupker-Kesebir, Gitta. 2016. “Is Islam the Solution? Comparing Turkish Islamic and Secular Thinking toward Ethnic and Religious Minorities.” Journal of Church and State 58:529555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Svensson, Isak. 2007. “Fighting with Faith: Religion and Conflict Resolution in Civil Wars.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 15:930949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toft, Duffy Monica, Philpott, Daniel, and Samuel Shah, Timothy. 2011. God's Century: Resurgent Religion and Global Politics. New York, NY: Norton & Company.Google Scholar
Toft, Duffy Monica. 2007. “Getting Religion? The Puzzling Case of Islam and Civil War.” International Security 31:97131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Toft, Duffy Monica. 2010. “Ending Civil Wars: A Case for Rebel Victory?International Security 34:736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, F. Barbara. 2004. “Does Conflict Beget Conflict? Explaining Recurring Civil War.” Journal of Peace Research 41:371388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, F. Barbara. 2006. “Information, Uncertainty, and the Decision to Secede.” International Organization 60:105135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, F. Barbara. 1997. “The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement.” International Organization 51:335364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walter, F. Barbara. 2002. Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Wilcox, Clyde. 2016. “Toward a Theory of Religious Coalitions.” Politics and Religion 9:234248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yavuz, Hakan M. 2009. Secularism and Muslim Democracy in Turkey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 37
Total number of PDF views: 346 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 17th November 2016 - 19th April 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Religion as a Peacemaker? Peace Duration after Ethnic Civil Wars
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Religion as a Peacemaker? Peace Duration after Ethnic Civil Wars
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Religion as a Peacemaker? Peace Duration after Ethnic Civil Wars
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *