Archer, John. 2009. “Does Sexual Selection Explain Human Sex Differences in Aggression?” Behavioral and Brain Sciences
32 (3–4): 249–66.
Bear, Julia B., and Woolley, Anita Williams. 2011. “The Role of Gender in Team Collaboration and Performance.” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews
36 (2): 146–53.
Bhavnani, Rikhil R.
2009. “Do Electoral Quotas Work after they are Withdrawn? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India.” American Political Science Review
103 (1): 23–35.
Bittner, Amanda. 2011. Platform or Personality? The Role of Party Leaders in Elections. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Brambor, Thomas, Clark, William Roberts, and Golder, Matt. 2006. “Understanding Interaction Models: Improving Empirical Analyses.” Political Analysis
14 (1): 63–82.
Bratton, Kathleen A.
2005. “Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Women in State Legislatures.” Politics & Gender
1 (1): 97–125.
Brooks, Deborah Jordan. 2010. “A Negativity Gap? Voter Gender, Attack Politics, and Participation in American Elections.” Politics & Gender
6 (3): 319–41.
Bystrom, Dianne G, Robertson, Terry, Banwart, Mary Christine, and Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2004. Gender and Candidate Communication: Videostyle, Webstyle, Newstyle. New York/London: Routledge.
Bystrom, Dianne, and Kaid, Lynda Lee. 2002. “Are Women Candidates Transforming Campaign Communication?” In Women Transforming Congress, ed. Rosenthal, Cindy S.. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Campbell, Kevin, and Mínguez-Vera, Antonio. 2008. “Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Financial Performance.” Journal of Business Ethics
83 (3): 435–51.
Carlson, Tom. 2001. “Gender and Political Advertising across Cultures: A Comparison of Male and Female Political Advertising in Finland and the US.” European Journal of Communication
16 (2): 131–54.
Carlson, Tom. 2007. “It's a Man's World? Male and Female Election Campaigning on the Internet.” Journal of Political Marketing
6 (1): 41–67.
Caul, Miki. 1999. “Women's Representation in Parliament. The Role of Political Parties.” Party Politics
5 (1): 79–98.
Caul, Miki. 2001. “Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross–National Analysis.” Journal of Politics
63 (4): 1214–29.
Childs, Sarah, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2008. “Critical Mass Theory and Women's Political Representation.” Political Studies
56 (3): 725–36.
Craig, Stephen C., and Rippere, Paulina. 2013. “He Said, She Said: The Impact of Candidate Gender in Negative Campaigns.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.
Dahlerup, Drude. 1988. “From a Small to a Large Minority: Women in Scandinavian Politics.” Scandinavian Political Studies
11 (4): 275–98.
Dinzes, Deborah, Cozzens, Michael D., and Manross, George G.. 1994. “The Role of Gender in Attack Ads: “Revisiting Negative Political Advertising.” Communication Research Reports
11 (1): 67–75.
Dolezal, Martin, Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz, and Müller, Wolfang C.. 2015. “When do Parties Attack their Competitors? Negative Campaigning in Austria, 2002–2008.” In New Perspectives on Negative Campaigning: Why Attack Politics Matters, ed. Alessandro Nai and Annemarie S. Walter. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Dolezal, Martin, Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz, and Müller, Wolfang C.. N.d. “Who Will Attack the Competitors? How Political Parties Resolve Strategic and Collective Action Dilemmas in Negative Campaigning.” Party Politics. Forthcoming.
Dolezal, Martin, Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz, Müller, Wolfgang C., and Winkler, Anna Katharina. 2016. “Analyzing Manifestos in their Elctoral Context: A New Approach Applied to Austria, 2002–2008.” Political Science Research and Methods
4 (3): 641–50.
Eagly, Alice H.
1987. Sex Differences in Social Behavior: A Social-Role Interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Eagly, Alice H., and Karau, Steven J.. 2002. “Role Congruity Theory of Prejudice toward Female Leaders.” Psychological Review
109 (3): 573–98.
Eagly, Alice H., and Wood, Wendy. 1999. “The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions versus Social Roles.” American Psychologist
54 (6): 408–23.
Eagly, Alice H., Wood, Wendy, and Diekman, Amanda B.. 2000. “Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and Similarities: A Current Appraisal.” In The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender, ed. Eckes, Thomas and Trautner, Hanns M.. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Eagly, Alice H, Wood, Wendy, and Johannesen-Schmidt, Mary C.. 2004. “Social Role Theory of Sex Differences and Similarities: Implications for the Partner Preferences of Women and Men.” In The Psychology of Gender, ed. Eagly, Alice H., Beall, Anne E. and Sternberg, Robert J.. New York/London: The Guilford Press.
Eder, Nikolaus, and Müller, Wolfgang C.. 2013. “Gender Voting: Party Quotas, Preferential Vote Results and Individual Campaign ‘Profiles’ in Austria.” Presented at the ECPR Joint Sessions of Workshops, Mainz, Germany.
Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian. 2008. “Negative Campaigning in a Multiparty System.” Representation
44 (1): 27–39.
Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian. 2010. “Beyond American Negativity: Toward a General Understanding of the Determinants of Negative Campaining.” European Political Science Review
2 (1): 137–56.
Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz, and Müller, Wolfgang C.. 2014. “The Selection of Party Leaders in Austria: Channeling Ambition Effectively.” In The Selection of Political Party Leaders in Contemporary Parliamentary Democracies. A Comparative Study, ed. Pilet, Jean-Benoit and Cross, W.. London: Routledge.
Fenwick, Graham D., and Neal, Derrick J.. 2001. “Effect of Gender Composition on Group Performance.” Gender, Work & Organization
8 (2): 205–25.
Fox, Richard Logan. 1997. Gender Dynamics in Congressional Elections. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Francia, Peter L., and Herrnson, Paul S.. 2007. “Keeping it Professional: The Influence of Political Consultants on Candidate Attitudes toward Negative Campaigning.” Politics & Policy
35 (2): 246–72.
Fridkin, Kim L., Kenney, Patrick J., and Woodall, Gina Serignese. 2009. “Bad for Men, Better for Women: The Impact of Stereotypes during Negative Campaigns.” Political Behavior
31 (1): 53–77.
Geer, John G.
2006. In Defense of Negativity. Attack Ads in Presidential Campaigns. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Gordon, Ann, Shafie, David M., and Crigler, Ann N.. 2003. “Is Negative Advertising Effective for Female Candidates? An Experiment in Voters’ Uses of Gender Stereotypes.” The International Journal of Press/Politics
8 (3): 35–53.
Grossmann, Matt. 2012. “Who (or What) Makes Campaigns Negative?” The American Review of Politics
33 (1): 1–22.
Hansen, Kasper M., and Pedersen, Rasmus Tue. 2008. “Negative Campaiging in a Multiparty System.” Scandinavian Political Studies
31 (4): 408–27.
Haselmayer, Martin, Meyer, Thomas M., and Wagner, Markus. 2015. “Who Gets into the Papers? Media Attention to Party Communication in Election Campaigns.” Presented at the 73rd Annual MPSA Conferece, Chicago.
Herrnson, Paul S., Lay, J. Celeste, and Stokes, Atiya Kai. 2003. “Women Running ‘as Women’: Candidate Gender, Campaign Issues, and Voter-Targeting Strategies.” Journal of Politics
65 (1): 244–55.
Herrnson, Paul S., and Lucas, Jennifer C.. 2006. “The Fairer Sex? Gender and Negative Campaigning in US Elections.” American Politics Research
34 (1): 69–94.
Hitchon, Jacqueline C., Chang, Chingching, and Harris, Rhonda. 1997. “Should Women Emote? Perceptual Bias and Opinion Change in Response to Political Ads for Candidates of Different Genders.” Political Communication
14 (1): 49–69.
Kahn, Kim Fridkin. 1993. “Gender Differences in Campaign Messages: The Political Advertisements of Men and Women Candidates for US Senate.” Political Research Quarterly
46 (3): 481–502.
Kahn, Kim Fridkin, and Kenney, Patrick J.. 2000. “How Negative Campaigning Enhances Knowledge of Senate Elections.” In Crowded Airwaves: Campaign Advertising in Elections, ed. Thurber, James A., Nelson, Candice J. and Dulio, David A.. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.
Kahn, Kim Fridkin, and Kenney, Patrick J.. 2004. No Holds Barred: Negativity in US Senate Campaigns. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977a. Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977b. “Some Effects of Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women.” American Journal of Sociology
82 (5): 965–90.
Kittilson, Miki Caul. 2011. “Women, Parties and Platforms in Post-Industrial Democracies.” Party Politics
17 (1): 66–92.
Kleinnijenhuis, Jan, and Pennings, Paul. 2001. “Measurement of Party Positions on the Basis of Party Programmes, Media Coverage and Voter Perceptions.” In Estimating the Policy Positions of Political Actors, ed. Laver, Michael. London: Routledge.
Klotz, Robert. 1998. “Virtual Criticism: Negative Advertising on the Internet in the 1996 Senate Races.” Political Communication
15 (3): 347–65.
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Grande, Edgar, Dolezal, Martin, Helbling, Marc, Höglinger, Dominic, Hutter, Swen, and Wüest, Bruno. 2012. Political Conflict in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kriesi, Hanspeter, Grande, Edgar, Lachat, Romain, Dolezal, Martin, Bornschier, Simon, and Frey, Timotheos. 2008. West European Politics in the Age of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krishnan, Hema A., and Park, Daewoo. 2005. “A Few Good Women—On Top Management Teams.” Journal of Business Research
58 (12): 1712–20.
Krupnikov, Yanna, and Bauer, Nichole M.. 2014. “The Relationship between Campaign Negativity, Gender and Campaign Context.” Political Behaviour
36 (1): 167–88.
Kunovich, Sheri, and Paxton, Pamela. 2005. “Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women's National Political Representation.” American Journal of Sociology
111 (2): 505–52.
Lake, Cecilia. 1984. Impact of Gender on Campaigns: A Study of Men and Women Candidates in 1982. Washington, DC: National Women's Political Caucus.
Lau, Richard R., Sigelman, Lee, and Rovner, Ivy Brown. 2007. “The Effects of Negative Political Campaigns: A Meta-Analytic Reassessment.” Journal of Politics
69 (4): 1176–209.
Lau, Richard R., and Pomper, Gerald M.. 2001. “Negative Campaigning by US Senate Candidates.” Party Politics
7 (1): 69–87.
Lau, Richard R., and Pomper, Gerald M.. 2004. Negative Campaigning. An Analysis of U.S. Senate Elections. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Maier, Jürgen. 2015. “Do Female Candidates Feel Compelled to Meet Sex-Role Expectations or are They as Tough as Men? A Content Analysis on the Gender-Specific Use of Attacks in German Televised Debates.” In The New Perspectives on Negative Campaigning: Why Attack Politics Matters, ed. Nai, Alessandro and Walter, Annemarie S.. Colchester: ECPR Press.
Myaskovsky, Larissa, Unikel, Emily, and Dew, Mary Amanda. 2005. “Effects of Gender Diversity on Performance and Interpersonal Behavior in Small Work Groups.” Sex Roles
52 (9–10): 645–57.
Nai, Alessandro. 2013. “What Really Matters is Which Camp Goes Dirty: Differential Effects of Negative Campaigning on Turnout during Swiss Federal Ballots.” European Journal of Political Research
52 (1): 44–70.
Nai, Alessandro, and Walter, Annemarie S., eds. 2015. New Perspectives on Negative Campaigning: Why Attack Politics Matters. Colchester: ECPR Press.
O'Brien, Diana Z.
2015 “Rising to the Top: Gender, Political Performance, and Party Leadership in Parliamentary Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science
59 (4): 1022–39.
Panagopoulos, Costas. 2004. “Boy Talk/Girl Talk: Gender Differences in Campaign Communications Strategies.” Women & Politics
26 (3–4): 131–55.
Proctor, David E., Schenck-Hamlin, William J., and Haase, Karen A. 1994. “Exploring the Role of Gender in the Development on Negative Political Advertisements.” Women & Politics
14 (2): 1–22.
Sanbonmatsu, Kira. 2002. “Political Parties and the Recruitment of Women to State Legislatures.” Journal of Politics
64 (3): 791–809.
Seethaler, Josef, and Melischek, Gabriele. 2014. “Phases of Mediatization. Empirical Evidence from Austrian Election Campaigns since 1970.” Journalism Practice
8 (3): 258–78.
Steininger, Barbara. 2000. “Representation of Women in the Austrian Political System 1945–1998: From a Token Female Politician towards an Equal Ratio?” Women & Politics
21 (2): 81–106.
Steininger, Barbara. 2006. “Frauen im Regierungssystem.” In Politik in Österreich. Das Handbuch, ed. Dachs, Herbert, Gerlich, Peter, Gottweis, Herbert, Kramer, Helmut, Lauber, Volkmar, Müller, Wolfgang C. and Tálos, Emmerich. Vienna: Manz.
Studlar, Donley T., and McAllister, Ian. 2002. “Does a Critical Mass Exist? A Comparative Analysis of Women's Legislative Representation since 1950.” European Journal of Political Research
41 (2): 233–53.
Thomas, Sue. 1994. How Women Legislate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Walter, Annemarie S.
2013. “Women on the Battleground: Does Gender Condition the Use of Negative Campaigning?” Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties
23 (2): 154–76.
Walter, Annemarie S.
Negative Campaigning in Western Europe: Beyond the Vote-Seeking Perspective
Ph.D. diss. University of Amsterdam.
Walter, Annemarie S.
2014. “Choosing the Enemy: Attack Behaviour in a Multiparty System.” Party Politics
20 (3): 311–23.
Walter, Annemarie S., van der Brug, Wouter, and van Praag, Philip. 2014. “When the Stakes are High: Party Competition and Negative Campaigning.” Comparative Political Studies
47 (4): 550–73
Wängnerud, Lena. 2009. “Women in Parliaments: Descriptive and Substantive Representation.” Annual Review of Political Science