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On Political Methodology

  • Gary King


“Politimetrics” (Gurr 1972), “polimetrics,” (Alker 1975), “politometrics” (Hilton 1976), “political arithmetic” (Petty [1672] 1971), “quantitative Political Science (QPS),” “governmetrics,” “posopolitics” (Papayanopoulos 1973), “political science statistics” (Rai and Blydenburgh 1973), “political statistics” (Rice 1926). These are some of the names that scholars have used to describe the field we now call “political methodology.”1 The history of political methodology has been quite fragmented until recently, as reflected by this patchwork of names. The field has begun to coalesce during the past decade; we are developing persistent organizations, a growing body of scholarly literature, and an emerging consensus about important problems that need to be solved.



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Achen, Christopher H. 1977. “Measuring Representation: Perils of the Correlation Coefficient.” American Journal of Political Science 21 (4): 805–15.
Achen, Christopher H. 1981. “Towards Theories of Data.” In Political Science: The State of the Discipline, ed. Finifter, Ada. Washington, D.C.: American Political Science Association.
Achen, Christopher H. 1983. “If Party ID Influences the Vote, Goodman's Ecological Regression is Biased (But Factor Analysis is Consistent).” Photocopy.
Achen, Christopher H. 1986a. “Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Unbiased Aggregation of Cross-Sectional Regressions.” Presented at the 1986 meeting of the Political Methodology Group, Cambridge, Mass.
Achen, Christopher H. 1986b. The Statistical Analysis of Quasi-Experiments. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Arora, Swarnjit S., and Brown, Murray. 1977. “Alternative Approaches to Spatial Correlation: An Improvement Over Current Practice.” International Regional Science Review 2 (1): 6778.
Alker, Hayward R. Jr. 1975. “Polimetrics: Its Descriptive Foundations.” In Handbook of Political Science, ed. Greenstein, Fred and Polsby, Nelson. Reading: Addison-Wesley.
Alt, James, and King, Gary. N.d. “A Consistent Model for Ecological Inference.” In progress.
Anselin, Luc. 1988. Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Bartels, Larry. 1989. “Misspecification in Instrumental Variables Estimators.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Political Science Methodology Group, Minneapolis.
Beck, Nathaniel. 1983. ‘Time-varying Parameter Regression Models.” American Journal of Political Science 27: 557600.
Beck, Nathaniel. 1986. “Estimating Dynamic Models is Not Merely a Matter of Technique.” Political Methodology 11 (1-2): 7190.
Beck, Nathaniel. 1987. “Alternative Dynamic Specifications of Popularity Functions.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Political Methodology Group, Durham, N.C.
Besag, Julian. 1974. “Spatial Interaction and the Statistical Analysis of Lattice Systems” [with comments]. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, ser. B, 36:192-236.
Brandsma, A. S., and Ketellapper, R. H. 1978. “A Biparametric Approach to Spatial Correlation.” Environment and Planning 11: 5158.
Brown, Lawrence A., and Paul Jones, John III. 1985. “Spatial Variation in Migration Processes and Development: A Costa Rican Example of Conventional Modeling Augmented by the Expansion Method.” Demography 22 (3): 327–52.
Brown, Philip J., and Payne, Clive D. 1986. “Aggregate Data, Ecological Regression, and Voting Transitions.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (394): 452–60.
Brueckner, Jan K. 1986. “A Switching Regression Analysis of Urban Population Densities.” Journal of Urban Economics 19: 174–89.
Bryk, Anthony S., and Thum, Yeow Meng. 1988. “The Effects of High School Organization on Dropping Out: An Exploratory Investigation.” University of Chicago. Mimeo.
Burridge, P. 1981. ‘Testing for a Common Factor in a Spatial Correlation Model.” Environment and Planning, A. 13: 795800.
Cleveland, William S. 1985. The Elements of Graphing Data. Monterey, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Cliff, Andrew D., and Keith Ord, J. 1973. Spatial Correlation. London: Pion.
Cliff, Andrew D., and Keith Ord, J. 1981. Spatial Processes: Models and Applications. London: Pion.
Cressie, Noel, and Chan, Ngai H. 1989. “Spatial Modeling of Regional Variables.” Journal of the American Statistical Association 84 (406): 393401.
Dahl, Robert. 1961. Who Governs? Democracy and Power in an American City. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Dielman, Terry E. 1989. Pooled Cross-Sectional and Time Series Data Analysis. New York: M. Dekker.
Doreian, Patrick. 1980. “Linear Models with Spatially Distributed Data: Spatial Disturbances or Spatial Effects?Sociological Methods and Research 9(1): 2960.
Doreian, Patrick. 1982. “Maximum Likelihood Methods for Linear Models.” Sociological Methods and Research 10 (3): 243–69.
Dow, Malcolm M. 1984. “A Biparametric Approach to Network Correlation.” Sociological Methods and Research 13 (2): 210–17.
Eisner, Robert. 1989. “Divergences of Measurement and Theory and Some Implications for Economic Policy.” American Economic Review 79 (1): 113.
Franklin, Charles. 1989. “Estimation across Data Sets: Two-Stage Auxiliary Instrumental Variables Estimation (2SAIV).” Political Analysis 1: 124.
Freeman, John. 1983. “Granger Causality and Time Series Analysis of Political Relationships.” American Journal of Political Science 27: 327–58.
Freeman, John. 1989. “Systematic Sampling, Temporal Aggregation, and the Study of Political Relationships.” Political Analysis 1: 6198.
Goodman, Leo. 1953. “Ecological Regression and the Behavior of Individuals.” American Journal of Sociology 64: 610–25.
Gosnell, Harold F. 1933. “Statisticians and Political Scientists.” American Political Science Review 27 (3): 392403.
Gosnell, Harold F., and Gill, Norman N. 1935. “An Analysis of the 1932 Presidential vote in ChicagoAmerican Political Science Review 29: 967–84.
Gow, David John. 1985. “Quantification and Statistics in the Early Years of American Political Science, 1880-1922.” Political Methodology 11 (1-2): 118.
Gurr, Ted Robert. 1972. Politimetrics: An Introduction to Quantitative Macropolitics. Engelwood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
Hanushek, Eric, and Jackson, John. 1977. Statistical Methods for Social Scientists. New York: Academic Press.
Harvey, A. C. 1981. The Econometric Analysis of Time Series. Oxford: Philip Allan.
Hendry, David, and Mizon, G. 1978. “Serial Correlation as a Convenient Simplification, Not a Nuisance: A Comment on a Study of the Demand for Money by the Bank of England.” Economic Journal 88: 549–63.
Hibbs, Douglas. 1974. “Problems of Statistical Estimation and Causal Inference in Time-Series Regression Models.” Sociological Methodology 1974, 252308.
Hilton, Gordon. 1976. Intermediate Politometrics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Jackson, John E. 1975. “Issues, Party Choices, and Presidential Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 19: 161–86.
Jackson, John E. 1989. “An Errors-in-Variables Approach to Estimating Models with Small Area Data.” Political Analysis 1: 157–80.
Jackson, John E. 1990. “Estimation of Variable Coefficient Models.” Presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.
Johnson, Paul E., and Schrodt, Phillip A. 1989. “Theme Paper. Analytic Theory and Methodology.” Presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago.
Kendall, David G. 1989. “A Survey of the Statistical Theory of Shape.” Statistical Science 4 (2): 87120.
Key, V. O. 1949. Southern Politics in State and Nation. New York: Knopf.
King, Gary. 1986. “How Not to Lie with Statistics: Avoiding Common Mistakes in Quantitative Political Science.” American Journal of Political Science 30 (3): 666–87.
King, Gary. 1988. “Statistical Models for Political Science Event Counts: Bias in Conventional Procedures and Evidence for The Exponential Poisson Regression Model.” American Journal of Political Science 32 (3): 838–63.
King, Gary. 1989a. “Representation Through Legislative Redistricting: A Stochastic Model.” American Journal of Political Science 33 (4): 787824.
King, Gary. 1989b. Unifying Political Methodology: The Likelihood Theory of Statistical Inference. New York: Cambridge University Press.
King, Gary. 1991. “Constituency Service and Incumbency Advantage.” British Journal of Political Science. Forthcoming.
King, Gary, and Browning, Robert X. 1987. “Democratic Representation and Partisan Bias in Congressional Elections.” American Political Science Review 81: 1251–73.
King, Gary, and Gelman, Andrew. 1991. “Estimating Incumbency Advantage Without Bias.” American Journal of Political Science. Forthcoming.
Kritzer, Herbert M. 1978a. “Analyzing Contingency Tables by Weighted Least Squares: An Alternative to the Goodman Approach.” Political Methodology 5 (4): 277326.
Kritzer, Herbert M. 1978b. “An Introduction to Multivariate Contingency Table Analysis.” American Journal of Political Science 21: 187226.
Lowell, A. Lawrence. 1910. “The Physiology of Politics.” American Political Science Review 4 (1): 115.
Merriam, Charles. 1921. “The Present State of the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 15 (2): 173–85.
Niemi, Richard G., Grofman, Bernard, Carlucci, Carl, and Hofeller, Thomas. 1989. “Measuring Compactness and the Role of a Compactness Standard in a Test for Partisan Gerrymandering.” Photocopy.
Ogbum, William, and Goltra, Inez. 1919. “How Women Vote: A Study of an Election in Portland, Oregon.” Political Science Quarterly 34: 413–33.
Papayanopoulos, L., ed. 1973. “Democratic Representation and Apportionment: Quantitative Methods, Measures, and Criteria.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 219: 34.
Petty, William. [1672] 1971. Political Anatomy of Ireland. Reprint. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and field;.
Rai, Kul B., and Blydenburth, John C. 1973. Political Science Statistics. Boston: Holbrook Press.
Raudenbush, Stephen W. 1988. “Educational Applications of Hierarchical Linear Models: A Review.” Journal of Educational Statistics 13 (2): 85116.
Raudenbush, Stephen W., and Bryk, Anthony S. 1986. “A Hierarchical Model for Studying School Effects.” Sociology of Education 59: 117.
Reports of the National Conference on the Science of Politics.” 1924. American Political Science Review 18 (1): 119–48.
Report of the Committee on Political Research.” 1924. American Political Science Review 18 (3): 574600.
Reports of the Second National Conference on the Science of Politics.” 1925. American Political Science Review 19 (1): 104–10.
Report of the Third National Conference on the Science of Politics.” 1926. American Political Science Review 20 (1): 124–39.
Rice, Stuart A. 1926. “Some Applications of Statistical Method to Political Research.” American Political Science Review 20 (2): 313–29.
Rivers, Douglas. 1988. “Heterogeneity in Models of Electoral Choice.” American Journal of Political Science 32 (3): 737–57.
Shively, Philip. 1969. “Ecological Inference: The Use of Aggregate Data to Study Individuals.” American Political Science Review 63: 1183–96.
Stetzer, F. 1982. “Specifying Weights in Spatial Forecasting Models: The Results of Some Experiments.” Environment and Planning 14: 571–84.
Stigler, Stephen. 1986. The History of Statistics: The Measurement of Uncertainty before 1900. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Stimson, James A. 1985. “Regression in Time and Space.” American Journal of Political Science 29 (4): 914–47.
Tobler, W. 1979. “Cellular Geography.” In Philosophy in Geography, ed. Gale, S. and Olsson, G. Dordrecht: Reidel.
Tufte, Edward R. 1969. “Improving Data Analysis in Political Science.” World Politics 21 (4): 641–54.
Tufte, Edward R. 1983. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. New Haven: Graphics Press.
Weisberg, Herbert. 1974. “Dimensionland: An Excursion into Spaces.” American Journal of Political Science 18: 743–76.
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Political Analysis
  • ISSN: 1047-1987
  • EISSN: 1476-4989
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