Skip to main content Accessibility help

A Consensus on Second-Stage Analyses in Ecological Inference Models

  • Christopher Adolph (a1), Gary King (a2), Michael C. Herron (a3) and Kenneth W. Shotts (a4)


Since Herron and Shotts (2003a; hereinafter HS), Adolph and King (2003; hereinafter AK), and Herron and Shotts (2003b; hereinafter HS2), the four of us have iterated many more times, learned a great deal, and arrived at a consensus on this issue. This paper describes our joint recommendations for how to run second-stage ecological regressions, and provides detailed analyses to back up our claims.



Hide All
Adolph, Christopher, and King, Gary. 2003. “Analyzing Second-Stage Ecological Regressions: Comment on Herron and Shotts.” Political Analysis 11:6576.
Gelman, Andrew, and King, Gary. 1994. “A Unified Method of Evaluating Electoral Systems and Redistricting Plans.” American Journal of Political Science 38:514554.
Herron, Michael C., and Shotts, Kenneth W. 2003a. “Using Ecological Inference Point Estimates as Dependent Variables in Second-Stage Linear Regressions.” Political Analysis 11:4464.
Herron, Michael C., and Shotts, Kenneth W. 2003b. “Cross-Contamination in EI-R: Reply.” Political Analysis 11:7785.
King, Gary. 1997. A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
King, Gary, Murray, Joshua Salomon, Christopher, and Tandon, Ajay. 2002. “Enhancing the Validity and Cross-Cultural Comparability of Survey Research.” Manuscript. (Available from
Korn, E. L., and Graubard, B. I. 1998. “Variance Estimation for Superpopulation Parameters.” Statistica Sinica 8:11311151.
Lewis, Jeffrey B. 2000. “Two-Stage Approaches to Regression Models in which the Dependent Variable Is Based on Estimates.” Working paper, University of California-Los Angeles.
Rao, J. N. K. 1999. “Some Current Trends in Sample Survey Theory and Methods.” Sankhya: The Indian Journal of Statistics 61, Series B, Pt. 1:157.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Political Analysis
  • ISSN: 1047-1987
  • EISSN: 1476-4989
  • URL: /core/journals/political-analysis
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed