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Analyzing Second-Stage Ecological Regressions: Comment on Herron and Shotts

  • Christopher Adolph (a1) and Gary King (a2)


We take this opportunity to comment on Herron and Shotts (2003; hereinafter HS) because of its interesting and productive ideas and because of the potential to affect the way a considerable body of practical research is conducted. This article, and the literature referenced therein, is based on the suggestions in three paragraphs in King (1997, pp. 289–290). Because these paragraphs were not summarized in HS, we thought they might be a useful place to start.



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Duncan Otis, Dudley, and Davis, Beverly. 1953. “An Alternative to Ecological Correlation.” American Sociological Review 18:665666.
Goodman, Leo. 1959. “Some Alternatives to Ecological Correlation.” American Journal of Sociology 64:610624.
Herron, Michael C., and Shotts, Kenneth W. 2003. “Using Ecological Inference Point Estimates as Dependent Variables in Second-Stage Linear Regressions.” Political Analysis 11:4464.
Imai, Kosuke, and King, Gary. 2002. “Did Illegally Counted Overseas Absentee Ballots Decide the 2000 U.S. Presidential Election?” (Available from
King, Gary. 1997. A Solution to the Ecological Inference Problem: Reconstructing Individual Behavior from Aggregate Data. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Meng, X. L. 1994. “Multiple-Imputation Inferences with Uncongenial Sources of Input.” Statistical Science 9:538573.
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Political Analysis
  • ISSN: 1047-1987
  • EISSN: 1476-4989
  • URL: /core/journals/political-analysis
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