Dental models of 649 Canadian Inuit from Hall Beach and Igloolik, and both models and skull dentitions of 782 Greenland Inuit (323 from the east coast, 459 from the west coast), were examined for (a) presence or absence of four specific morphological variants considered by various authors to indicate racial affinities (shovel-shaped incisors, cusp of Carabelli, Eskimo tubercle and protostylid on molars and premolars), and (b) amount of wear. Dental models of contemporary British and British-Asian subjects were studied for comparison. Both living and skeletal Greenland material was from people known to have followed a traditional Inuit lifestyle, with little or no contact with the Western world. Canadian material was from a population in transition between traditional and Western ways of life, eating both native and Western foods. Morphological variation was considered in the context of genetic affinities of the populations to each other and to other groups of Central Asian origin. Tooth wear was examined in relation to diet, lifestyle and health.