Skip to main content Accessibility help

Morphology and infraciliature of some soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from continental Antarctica, with notes on the morphogenesis of Sterkiella histriomuscorum

  • Wolfgang Petz (a1) and Wilhelm Foissner (a1)


The morphology of seven soil ciliate species from continental Antarctica was investigated using live observation and protargol impregnation. Observations on two populations of Protospathidium serpens corroborate the view that this species usually has a single, more-or-less nodular, macronucleus distinguishing it from P. muscicola, which possesses 10–30 nodules. The Antarctic specimens of Protospathidium terricola differ inconspicuously from the type population in that they are slightly larger, have fewer ciliary rows (17 vs 21), and the fragments of the circumoral kinety are less distinctly separated from each other. Spathidium seppelti nov. spec, resembles 5. bavariense, but has 100–200 macronuclear nodules and a conical depression in the dorsal third of the oral bulge. Odontochlamys wisconsinensis nov. comb, (basionym: Chilodonella wisconsinensis Kahl, 1931) has four right field kineties and an oral basket consisting of 14 rods; the dorsal brush is near the anterior margin and usually consists of four cilia. The Antarctic population of Pseudochilodonopsis mutabilis possesses a regular dorsal hump and only 12–14 (about 15 in Austrian type population) phary ngeal rods. Oxytricha opisthomuscorum has six dorsal kineties with long cilia and a buccal cirrus near the anterior end of the paroral membrane. The Antarctic specimens of Sterkiella histriomuscorum have fïve transverse cirri. Their morphogenesis differs slightly from that of a population having four transverse cirri in that the daughter's anlagen are more distinctly separated and some temporal sequences are different.



Hide All
Alekperov, I.K. 1983. Ciliates of pelogen in rearing ponds of the Kura experimental sturgeon hatchery. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 62 (3): 331338.
André, E. 1916. Contribution a I'étude de la faune infusorienne du Léman. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 24: 621634.
Augustin, H., and Foissner, W.. 1992. Morphologie und Ökologie einiger Ciliaten (Protozoa: Ciliophora) aus dem Belebtschlamm. Archiv für Protistenkunde 141 (4): 243283.
Bamforth, S., Freckman, D., and Virginia, R.. 1993. Soil protozoa of the Antarctic polar desert. IX International Congress of Protozoology, Berlin, Germany, Abstracts. Berlin: German Society of Protozoology: 8 (Abstract 021).
Berger, H., and Foissner, W.. 1987. Morphology and biometry of some soil hypotrichs (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie 114 (2): 193239.
Berger, H., and Foissner, W.. 1989. Morphology and biometry of some soil hypotrichs (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Europe and Japan. Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Zoology) 55: 1946.
Berger, H., and Foissner, W.. 1997. Cladistic relationships and generic characterization of oxytrichid hypotrichs (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Archiv für Protistenkunde 148 (1–2): 125155.
Berger, H., Foissner, W., and Adam, H.. 1984. Taxonomie, Biometrie und Morphogenese einiger terricoler Ciliaten (Protozoa: Ciliophora). Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie 111 (3): 339367.
Berger, H., Foissner, W., and Adam, H.. 1985. Morphological variation and comparative analysis of morphogenesis in Parakahliella macrostoma (Foissner, 1982) nov.gen. and Histriculusmuscorum(Kahl, 1932) (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida). Protistologica 21 (3): 295311.
Blatterer, H., and Foissner, W.. 1992. Morphology and infraciliature of some cyrtophorid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from freshwater and soil. Archiv für Protistenkunde 142 (3–4): 101118.
Blume, H.-P., and Bolter, M.. 1993. Soils of Casey Station (Wilkes Land, Antarctica). Joint Russian–American seminar on cryopedology and global change: postseminar proceedings. Pushchino: Russian Academy of Science: 96103.
Blume, H.-P., and Bölter, M.. 1996. Wechselwirkungen zwischen Boden- und Vegetationsentwicklung in der Kontinentalen Antarktis. Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft für Ökologie 25: 2534.
Borror, A.C. 1972. Revision of the order Hypotrichida(Ciliophora, Protozoa). Journal of Protozoology 19 (1): 123.
Broady, P.A. 1989. Survey of algae and other terrestrial biota at Edward VII Peninsula, Marie Byrd Land. Antarctic Science 1 (3): 215224.
Buitkamp, U. 1977. Die Ciliatenfauna der Savanne von Lamto (Elfenbeinküste). Acta Protozoologica 16: 249276.
Certes, A. 1891. Note sur deux infusoires nouveaux des environs de Paris. Mémoires Société Zoologique de France 4: 536541.
Corliss, J.O. 1979. The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification and guide to the literature. Second edition. Oxford and New York: Pergamon Press.
Dragesco, J. 1970. Ciltés libres du Cameroun. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Université Fédérale du Cameroun (Numéro hors-série): 1141.
Dragesco, J., and Dragesco-Kernéis, A.. 1979. Cilies muscicoles nouveaux ou peu connus. Acta Protozoologica 18 (3): 401416.
Dragesco, J., and Dragesco-Kenéis, A.. 1986. Ciliés libres de I'Afrique intertropicale. Faune Tropicale XXVI. Paris: Éditions de I'Orstom.
Ehrenberg, C.G. 1838. Die Infusionsthierchen als vollkommene Organismen. Leipzig: Voβ.
Finlay, B.J. 1982. Procedures for the isolation, cultivation and identification of protozoa. In: Burns, R.G., and Slater, J.H. (eds). Experimental microbial ecology. Oxford: Blackwell: 4465.
Flint, E.A., and Stout, J.D.. 1960. Microbiology of some soils from Antarctica. Nature 188 (4752): 767768.
Foissner, W. 1980. Taxonomische Studien über die Ciliaten des Grossglocknergebietes (Hohe Tauern, Österreich). IX. Ordnungen Heterotrichida und Hypotrichida. Berichte der Naturwissenschaftlich-Medizinischen Vereinigung in Salzburg 5: 71117.
Foissner, W. 1981. Morphologie und Taxonomie einiger neuer und wenig bekannter kinetofragminophorer Ciliaten (Protozoa: Ciliophora) aus alpinen Böden. Zoologische Jahrbücher. Abteilung für Systematik, Ökologie und Geographie 108 (2): 264297.
Foissner, W. 1982. Ökologie und Taxonomie der Hypotrichida (Protozoa: Ciliophora) einiger osterreichischer Böden. Archiv für Protistenkunde 126 (1): 19143.
Foissner, W. 1984. Infraciliatur, Silberliniensystem und Biometrie einiger neuer und wenig bekannter terrestrischer, limnischer und mariner Ciliaten (Protozoa: Ciliophora) aus den Klassen Kinetofragminophora, Colpodea und Polyhymenophora. Stapfia (Linz) 12: 1165.
Foissner, W. 1987. Neueterrestrische und limnische Ciliaten (Protozoa, Ciliophora) aus Österreich und Deutschland. Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung / 195 (6–10): 217268.
Foissner, W. 1988. Taxonomie und Okologie einiger Ciliaten (Protozoa, Ciliophora) des Saprobiensystems. II. Familie Chilodonellidae. Hydrobiologia 162: 2145.
Foissner, W. 1989. Morphologie und Infraciliatur einiger neuer und wenig bekannter terrestrischer und limnischer Ciliaten (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Sitzungsberichte der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse, Abteilung /196 (5–10): 173247.
Foissner, W. 1996. Faunistics, taxonomy and ecology of moss and soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from Antarctica, with description of new species, including Pleuroplitoides smithi nov. gen., nov. spec. Acta Protozoologica 35 (2): 95123.
Foissner, W.In press. An updated compilation of world soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora), with ecological notes, new records, and descriptions of new species. European Journal of Protistology.
Foissner, W., and Adam, H.. 1983. Morphologie und Morphogenesedes Bodenciliaten Oxytrichagranulifera sp. n. (Ciliophora, Oxytrichidae). Zoologica Scripta 12 (1): 111
Foissner, W., and Didier, P.. 1981. Morphologie und Infraciliatur einiger kinetofragminophorer und hypotricher Ciliaten aus den Flieβgewässern von Besseen-Chandesse (Frankreich). Annales de la Station Biologique de Besse-en-Chandesse 15: 254275.
Foissner, W., Blatterer, H., Berger, H., and Kohmann, F.. 1991. Taxonomische und ökologische Revision der Ciliaten des Saprobiensystems-Band|: Cyrtophorida, Oligotrichida, Hypotrichia, Colpodea. Informationsberichte des Bayerischen Landesamtes für Wasserwirtschaft 1/91: 1478.
Gellért, J. 1955. Die Ciliaten des sich unter der Flechte Parmelia saxatilis Mass. gebildeten Humus. Acta Biologica Hungarica 6 (1–2): 77111.
Hemberger, H. 1982. Revision der Ordnung Hypotrichida Stein (Ciliophora, Protozoa) an Hand von Protargolpräparaten und Morphogenesedarstellungen. Unpublished PhD thesis. Bonn: Mathematischnaturwissenschaftliche Fakultät, Universität Bonn.
Kahl, A. 1930a. Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 1. Allgemeiner Teil und Prostomata. Tierwelt Deutschlands 18: 1180.
Kahl, A. 1930b. Neue und ergänzende Beobachtungenholotricher Infusorien. II. Archiv für Protistenkunde 70: 313416.
Kahl, A. 1931. Urtiere oder Protozoa I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 2. Holotricha auBer den im 1. Teil behandelten Prostomata. Tierwelt Deutschlands 21: 181398.
Kahl, A. 1932. Urtiere oder Protozoa. I: Wimpertiere oder Ciliata (Infusoria) 3. Spirotricha. Tierwelt Deutschlands 25: 399650.
Lewis Smith, R.I. 1986. Plant ecological studies in the fellfield ecosystem near Casey Sation, Australian Antarctic Territory, 1985–86. British Antarctic Survey Bulletin 72: 8191.
Nieto, J.J., Calvo, P., Martin, J., and Torres, A.. 1984. Divisional and regenerative morphogenesis in the hypotrich ciliate, Histriculussp. Acta Protozoologica 23 (4): 187195.
Paul, E., Stuwe, K., Teasdale, J., and Worley, B.. 1995. Structural and metamorphic geology of the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica: field evidence for repeated tectonothermal activity. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 42: 453469.
Petz, W. 1997. Ecology of the active soil microfauna(Protozoa, Metazoa) of Wilkes Land, East Antarctica. Polar Biology 18: 3344.
Petz, W., and Foissner, W.. 1996. Morphology and morphogenesis of Lamtostyla edaphoni Berger and Foissner and Onychodromopsis flexilis Stokes, two hypotrichs (Protozoa: Ciliophora) from Antarctic soils. Acta Protozoologica 35 (4): 257280.
Pomp, R., and Wilbert, N.. 1988. Taxonomie and ecological studies of ciliates from Australian saline soils: colpodids and hymenostomate ciliates. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 39: 479495.
Reuter, J. 1961. Einige faunistische und ökologische Beobachtungen über Felsentümpel-Ziliaten. Acta Zoologica Fennica 99: 442.
Roser, D.J., Seppelt, R.D., and Ashbolt, N.. 1993. Microbiology of omithogenic soils from the Windmill Islands, Budd Coast, continental Antarctica: microbial biomass distribution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25 (2): 165175.
Ryan, P.G., Watkins, B.P., Smith, R.I. Lewis, Dastych, H., Eicker, A., Foissner, W., Heatwole, H., Miller, W.R., and Thompson, G.. 1989. Biological survey of Robertskollen, western Dronning Maud Land: area description and preliminary species lists. South African Journal of Antarctic Research 19 (1): 1020.
Smith, H.G. 1978. The distribution and ecology of terrestrial protozoa of sub-Antarctic and maritime Antarctic islands. British Antarctic Survey Scientific Reports 95: 1104.
Song, W., and Wilbert, N.. 1989. Taxonomische Untersuchungen an Aufwuchsciliaten (Protozoa, Ciliophora) im Poppelsdorfer Weiher, Bonn. Lauterbornia 3: 2221.
Srámek-Husek, R. 1954. Neue und wenig bekannte Ciliaten aus der Tschechoslowakei und ihre Stellung im Saprobiensystem. Archiv für Protistenkunde 100: 246267.
Stokes, A.C. 1891. Notes of some new infusoria from the fresh waters of the United States. Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society year 1891: 697704.
Sudzuki, M. 1964. On the microfauna of the Antarctic region. I. Moss-water community at Langhovde. Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition Scientific Reports, Series E 19: 141.
Sudzuki, M. 1979. On the microfauna of the Antarctic region. III. Microbiota of the terrestrial interstices. Memoirs of National Institute of Polar Research, Special Issue 11: 104126.
Sudzuki, M., and Shimoizumi, J.. 1967. On the fresh-water microfaunaof the Antarctic region. II. Stability of faunisticcomposition of Antarctic microorganisms. Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition Scientific Reports 1: 216235.
Thompson, J.C. Jr, 1965. Pseudocohnilembuslongisetus, a hymenostome ciliate from Antarctica. Virginia Journal of Science 16: 165169.
Thompson, J.C. Jr, 1972. Ciliated protozoa of the Antarctic Peninsula. Antarctic Research Series 20: 261288.
Thompson, J.C. Jr, and Croom, J.M.. 1978. Systematics and ecology of ciliated protozoa from King George Island, South Shetland Islands. Antarctic Research Series 27: 4067.
Vuxanovici, A. 1959. Contributii la studiul unor infuzori holotrichi. Studii si Cercetari de Biologie 11 (4): 307335.
Vuxanovici, A. 1962a. Contributii la sistematica ciliatelor (Nota I). Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Seria Biologie Animala 14 (2): 197215.
Vuxanovici, A. 1962b. Contributii la sistematica ciliatelor (Nota II). Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Seria Biologie Animala 14: 331349.
Vuxanovici, A. 1962c. Contributii la sistematica ciliatelor (Nota III). Studii si Cercetari de Biologie, Seria Biologie Animala 14: 549573.
Wenzel, F. 1953. Die Ciliaten der Moosrasen trockner Standorte. Archiv für Protistenkunde 99: 70141.
Wilbert, N. 1975. Eine verbesserte Technik der Protargolimprägnation für Ciliaten. Mikrokosmos 64 (6): 171179.
Wirnsberger, E., Foissner, W., and Adam, H.. 1985. Morphological, biometric, and morphogenetic comparison of two closely related species, Stylonychia vorax and S. pustulata(Ciliophora: Oxytrichidae). Journal of Protozoology 32 (2): 261268.
Zou, S.-F., and Zhang, Z.-R.. 1992. Morphology and morphogenesis of Histriculus muscorum Kahl. Acta Zoologica Sinica 38 (4): 345351.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Morphology and infraciliature of some soil ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora) from continental Antarctica, with notes on the morphogenesis of Sterkiella histriomuscorum

  • Wolfgang Petz (a1) and Wilhelm Foissner (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.